Dissociative Identity Disorder

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Dissociative identity disorder (DID), also known as multiple personality disorder (MPD), is a disorder that is part of a group of conditions known as dissociative disorders. According to WebMD, dissociative disorders "are mental illnesses that involve disruptions or breakdowns of memory, awareness, identity and/or perception." Individuals who suffer from DID possess two or more personalities, and they may be unaware that they have multiple personalities. This particular mental illness is found in "3 to 4% of people hospitalized for other mental health disorders and in a sizable minority of people in drug abuse treatment facilities" (Merk Manuals, Online Medical Library). DID "appears to be caused by the interaction of several factors," including "overwhelming stress; an ability to separate one's memories, perceptions, or identity from conscious awareness; abnormal psychologic development, and insufficient protection and nurture during childhood" (Merk Manuals, Online Medical Library). Many studies have been done on this topic in the recent years as this field has generated great interest. The purpose and general interest of this annotated bibliography is to thoroughly examine dissociative identity disorder. Our research begins with looking into the history of this diagnostic category, while it also includes the controversies surrounding the actuality of the disorder, and whether or not it is just a “fad". Starting with examining the general background of this mental disease, we will move on to more specific topics such as the etiology of the disorder and the treatment methods. The discussion at the end will summarize our findings. ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY:

Armstrong, J. G., Brand, B. L., & Loewenstein, R. J. (2006, March). Psychological assessment of patients with dissociative identity disorder. Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 29(1), 145-168. Armstrong, Brand, and Loewenstein (2006) mainly look into how “psychologic assessment” aids the diagnosis of dissociative identity disorder. The authors also examine the effect of "psychologic assessment" on identifying treatment for the patients. This article provides an insight into the diagnosis of this disorder through “psychologic assessment” and it is helpful towards our research as we learn about this diagnostic category. Den Boer, J.A., Haaksma, J., Korf, J., Nijenhuis, E. R. S., Paans, A. M. J., Quak, J., Reinders, A. A. T. S., & Willemsen, A. T. M. (2006, October). Psychobiological characteristics of dissociative identity disorder: A symptom provocation study. Biological Psychiatry, 60(7), 730-740. Reinders, Nijenhuis, Quak, Korf, Haaksma, Paans, Willemsen and den Boer (2006) look into whether the dissociative identity states (DIS) “show different psychobiological reactions to trauma-related memory”. Furthermore, the authors also clarify their methods of gathering data for this study and displaying various definitions. This article is useful for our research; it provides us with statistical reference as it examines how and whether a DID patient’s various identity states are affected by “trauma-related memory." Foote, B., Kaplan, M., Legatt, M. E., Lipschitz, D., & Smolin, Y. (2006, April). Prevalence of dissociative disorders in psychiatric outpatients. Am J Psychiatry, 163(4), 623-629. In this article, Foote, Kaplan, Legatt, Lipschitz, and Smolin (2006) had the objective to "assess the prevalence of DSM-IV dissociative disorders in an inner-city outpatient psychiatric population." The authors suggest that dissociative disorders are rather common today, as apposed to the past when they were "thought to be exotic and rare disorders, if indeed they existed at all." In this study, many instruments, such as the "dissociative experiences scale" and "traumatic experiences questionnaire" are used to test the subjects. Foote et al. conclude that there is a "high prevalence of dissociative disorders." Possible reasons why individuals suffer from dissociative...
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