| City College Brighton and Hove. Tutor: Kerrry Lum
129153 Roza Grunwald
[Disorder Report by Roza Grunwald]|
Schizophrenia, Anorexia nervosa and Bulimia|
The purpose of this report is to explain a range of psychological disorders such as schizophrenia, anorexia nervosa and bulimia, including causes and symptoms. The report is going to evaluate physiological and psychological causes of the disorders and treatment options for schizophrenia. What is schizophrenia?
Schizophrenia is a group of psychotic disorders that interfere with thinking and mental or emotional responsiveness. It is a disease of the brain. The term ‘schizophrenia’, which means "split mind," was first used in 1911 by a Swiss psychiatrist Eugen Bleuler to categorize patients whose thought processes and emotional responses seemed disconnected. Despite its name, the condition does not cause a split personality. Schizophrenia is a group of psychotic disorders characterized by disturbances in perception, behaviour and communication that last longer than 6 months (this includes psychotic behaviour). A person with schizophrenia has deteriorated occupational, interpersonal, and self-supportive abilities. (University of Maryland Medical Center UMMC 2011)
Types of schizophrenia:
Symptoms of schizophrenia:
* Paranoid delusions
* Delusions of grandeur
* Bizarre delusions
Some other symptoms:
* Behavioural disturbances
* Disordered thinking and speech
* Disturbed emotions low motivation
Explanation and evaluation of schizophrenia:
One explanation of schizophrenia is genetics. Gottesman (1991) summarized about 40 twins studies; the concordance rate was 48% for monozygotic twins and 17% for dizygotic twins. This suggests that there is a link between genes and schizophrenia, but this does not apply to the whole population as twins are not typical of the general population. Twins studies only take very small sample sizes. Also, twins share the same environment, which could be the reason why both twins develop schizophrenia. There is a 46% chance of developing schizophrenia if one parent has schizophrenia and 16% if a sibling has it. Then the concordance rate is 8% and the concordance rate is 1% for a random individual. This suggests that the stronger the genetic link the greater the chance that an individual will develop schizophrenia. However, the fact that family members who are more similar genetically tend to spend more time together means that environmental factors are also indicated in this evidence. Psychological
For many years psychologists have suggested that certain patterns of family interaction can induce or at least contribute to maintenance of schizophrenia causes. In the 1950s and 1960s it was thought that people suffering from schizophrenia were from dysfunctional families. There was even a strong belief that schizophrenia was caused by a dysfunction of communication within the family. The term ‘schizophrenogenic families’ (Fromm Reichmann 1948)
An associated suggestion was the double-bind situation, where children were given conflicting messages from parents who expressed care, yet at the same time appeared critical (Bateson et al, 1956). It was thought that this led to confusion, self doubt and eventual withdrawal. The double-bind theory accounts in part for the confused thinking of schizophrenic patients. However, it suffers from the serious problem that there is very little evidence supporting it.
The families of schizophrenics tend to have inadequate interpersonal communication. Mischler and Waxler (1968) found that mothers talking to their schizophrenic daughters were rather aloof and unresponsive. However, the same mothers behaved in a much more normal and responsive way when talking to their normal daughters....