Diseases of the Cardiovascular System

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CIRCULATORY SYSTEM

BIOLOGY

Introduction

Objectives

BACKGROUND INFORMATION OF CIRCULATORY SYSTEM
The circulatory system or also called the cardiovascular system comes from the Greek word kardia, which means the word heart, and the Latin vasculum, which means a small vessel. This system is composed of a simple loop which starts, and ends, at the heart. It also is a enclosed system in the sense that blood doesn’t flow out or into the system during its journey which goes from the heart ,to the body, and back again. This system contains a continuous flow of the same liquid been pumped through the loop over and over again. The circulatory system is composed of five main parts which are the heart, arteries, arterioles, capillaries, and the veins. Each part has a specific and unique job that helps the process of the system to be accomplished, and ables the system to function properly. The circulatory system begins in the right atrium. As the blood flows through the heart, it passes through each of the four chambers there are. Then it takes a quick stop to the lungs in order to get rid of the carbon dioxide and to pick up oxygen and ends up in the lower left/hand chamber, which is called the ventricle. When the blood is pushed out to the body and through the circulatory system, the left ventricle plays the role of the most important chamber in the heart. The left ventricle is the most important and largest chamber in the heart and is in charge to generate the force necessary to send blood to the aorta. The blood then travels to the arterioles (where speed and pressure is adjusted)and then into the capillaries. Here blood flow is adjusted and changes the conditions in the body. However because or the arterioles, when the blood reaches de capillaries it is no longer traveling in a pulsing fashion This continuous flow is necessary because there is a constant exchange of oxygen and nutrients happening through the walls of the capillaries. No cell in the body is very far away from a capillary. As blood travels through the capillaries, its supply of oxygen is reduced and it acquires waste products. From the capillaries, blood enters the venues and then veins, and travels back to the heart to be refreshed and sent out once again.

5 DISEASES OF CIRCULATORY SYSTEM

Congestive Heart Failure

The Congestive Heart Failure is very common in the list for cardiovascular diseases, however it is one of the worst too. This disease represents the failure of the heart to pump and deliver oxygen, instead when the heart pumps it does not produce and deliver rich blood oxygen to the body. The different types of congestive heart failure are acute or chronic heart failure, high output or low output heart failure and left sided or right sided biventricular failure. There can also be compensated or decompensate heart failure. This disease can cause the kidney to not receive enough blood which loses the ability to excrete salt(sodium) and water and causes the kidney to retain more fluid. Other effects include low ability for a person to exercise, fluids accumulate in the liver that blocks the production of essential proteins, intestines become less efficient in absorbing nutrients and medicine, and fluid also may accumulate in the extremities, resulting in edema (swelling) of the ankles and feet. This disease is caused by alcohol abuse and by diseases that weaken the heart muscle, that cause stiffening of the heart muscle, and that increase oxygen demand by the body tissue beyond the capability of the heart to deliver adequate oxygen-rich. Fortunately, this disease can be treated by having adequate rest and physical activity, a nutritious diet that is low in calories and in sodium, frequent and small meals that are light should be consumed and inotropic drugs that have a direct effect on the myocardium, by increasing the systolic contraction of the heart and thus increasing the cardiac output.

Coronary Artery Disease

Coronary...
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