Meliza L. Lopez
IV – Emerald
Disease| Signs & Symptoms| Causes of Spread| Treatment| Prevention| BIRD FLU (Avian Influenza)| • Fever• Body weakness or muscle pain• Cough• Sore throat• Some persons with H5N1 have sore eyes and/or diarrhea• Difficulty of breathing in a week’s time from onset in severe cases• Case fatality ratio is around 35%| • Bird flu or Avian Influenza is a contagious disease of birds ranging from mild to severe form of illness.• The outbreaks affecting some Asian countries caused by influenza A/H5N1 virus may also cause severe infection in humans.• Bird Flu is transmitted to humans through inhalation or contamination with infected discharges or feces of sick chicken.| • Treatment of Bird Flu in humans is the same as for other influenza viruses. Antiviral drugs, such as Osetalmivir halts the progress of the illness if given within the first 2 days from the onset of fever.| • Wash hands thoroughly with soap and water before and after handling live and dressed chicken.• Cook chicken thoroughly.• Do not sell live chicken, ducks, and pigs together in one cage or pen area.• Do not catch, get near or keep in captivity wild birds.• Do not handle sick or dead birds with bare hands. Use gloves or plastic material for the hands, facial masks and goggles.• Report to the nearest agricultural/veterinary office any unusual death or illness of chicken and other birds.• Report to the nearest local health centers any case of respiratory illness with history of exposure to sick chickens and other birds.|
Disease| Signs & Symptoms| Causes of Spread| Treatment| Prevention| LEPROSY| • long standing skin lesions that do not disappear with ordinary treatment• loss of feeling/numbness on the skin• loss of sweating and hair • growth over the skin lesions• thickened and/or painful nerves in the neck, forearm, near elbow joint and the back of knees| • Mycobacterium• Airborne: inhalation of droplet/spray from coughing and sneezing of untreated leprosy patient| • Paucibacillary (PB): the number of M. leprae in the body is small (less than 1 million) and a skin smear test is negative. The patient presents five or fewer skin lesions. Most cases of leprosy are PB.• Multibacillary (MB): M. leprae can multiple in the body almost without any check and is thus present in high numbers. The bacillus has likely spread to almost all areas of skin and peripheral nerves. A skin smear test is positive and the patient presents more than five skin lesions.• Dapsone• Rifampin• Clofazimine.| • Treat all leprosy cases to prevent spread of infection.• We should avoid direct contact with untreated patients.• Practice personal hygiene.• Maintain body resistance by healthful living.• Good nutrition.• Enough rest and exercises.• Clean environment.• Immediate treatment.|
Disease| Signs & Symptoms| Causes of Spread| Treatment| Prevention| PERTUSSIS| • runny nose• sneezing• mild cough• low-grade fever• Apnea — a pause in breathing (in infants)• Paroxysms (fits) of many, rapid coughs followed by a high-pitched "whoop"• Vomiting (throwing up)• Exhaustion (very tired) after coughing fits• The coughing fits can go on for up to 10 weeks or more. In China, pertussis is known as the "100 day cough."| • Primarily by direct contact with discharges from respiratory mucus membranes of infected persons• Airborne route probably by droplets• Indirect contact with articles freshly soiled with the discharges of infected persons| •Antibiotics kill the bacteria causing whooping cough and help speed recovery. Family members may be given preventive antibiotics. Unfortunately, not much is available to relieve the cough. Over-the-counter cough medicines, for instance, have little effect on whooping cough and are discouraged.| • Susceptibility is general.• One attack confers a prolonged immunity although exposed adults may have another attack.• Three doses of DPT confers immunity...