DISEASE AND ITS IMPACT ON HUMANS|
DANICA DE FREITAS|
Disease and its impact on humans
TABLE OF CONTENTS
WHAT IS A DISEASE?
MAIN TYPES OF DISEASES
DIABETES AND HYPERTENSION
WHAT IS A VECTOR?
ROLE OF BLOOD
EFFECTS OF DRUG ABUSE
SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC IMPLICATIONS OF DISEASE
IN PLANTS AND ANIMALS
What is a disease?
Disease is defined as a disorder with a specific cause (which may or may not be known) and recognizable signs and symptoms.
THERE ARE FOUR (4) MAIN TYPES OF DISEASES:
Pathogenic diseases are caused by organisms (parasites). E.g. micro-organisms causing STDs, malaria, smut; macro-organisms: head louse, blood fluke. Pathogenic diseases can be caused by bacteria, viruses, fungi etc.
Here is a short list of pathogenic diseases due to pathogenic bacteria that infect human: * ATHLETE’S FOOT
Summary of some pathogenic diseases
DISEASE| TYPE| SYMPTOMS| PREVENTION|
Athlete’s foot| Fungus| Red, itchy areas on the feet| Keep feet dry| Chickenpox| Virus| Rash all over body| Stop scratching, isolation| Cholera| Bacterium| Diarrhoea| Fluid replacement|
Diphtheria| Bacterium| By air, or contact with bleeding| Inject antitoxin| Malaria| Protist| Fever, sweating, collapse| Anti-malaria drugs| Tetanus| Bacterium| ‘lock jaw’, muscular spasms| Inject antibodies| Tuberculosis| Bacterium| Through the air| Rest, antibiotics|
Deficiency diseases are caused by lack of essential nutrients, e.g. in animals: anaemia, goitre, scurvy.
Vitamins Needed in the Body
Vitamins| Sources| Use in body| Deficiency disease|
A| Green vegetables and fruits| Part of visual purple in rods of the retina| Night blindness| B(there are at least twelve different B vitamins)| Wholemeat bread, yeast, rice| Aids respiratory enzymes| Beriberi (causes muscular weakness and paralysis)| C| Citrus fruits| For healthy skin and gums| Scurvy( causes pains in muscles and bleeding from gums)| D| Butter, egg yolk, made in the skin during sunlight| Helps calcium and phosphate to be used for making bones| Rickets (causes bones to become soft and deformed)| E| Wholemeat bread, butter| Antioxidant| General health| K| Vegetable, cereals| Making thrombin for clotting| Poor blood clotting| | | | |
Minerals Needed In the Body
Minerals| Sources| Use in body| Results of deficiency|
Iron| Liver, sardine| Part of haemoglobin| Anaemia|
Calcium| Milk, cheese| Part of bones and teeth| Poor bones and teeth| Phosphorus| Most protein foods| Part of bones and teeth | Poor bonesand teeth| Iodine | Sea foods| Part of thyroxine| Goitre|
Sodium| Salted meat| Blood plasma concentration| Muscular cramps|
Deficiency diseases can be prevented by consuming the above vitamins and minerals.
Hereditary diseases are caused by an abnormality in a person’s genetic material. It is a disease that is passed from one generation to the next within the same family. For e.g. haemophilia and sickle cell disease.
Sickle-cell disease is a hereditary blood disease that mostly affects people of African ancestry. These diseases cannot be cured.
Physiological diseases are caused by malfunctioning of body systems e.g. Respiratory system (lung damage and lung cancer), circulatory system (hypertension), or hormones eg.diabetes or a result of drug abuse eg. use of cocaine and heroin, or alcohol (cirrhosis of the liver). Physiological diseases can be controlled by a proper balanced diet, reduction of salt intake and by exercising and having healthy relationships with family and friends to prevent stress and social isolation.
Diabetes is the inability of the...