Disease

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What is Health?
Health is a state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity. What is disease?
An abnormal condition of an organism which interrupts the normal bodily functions that often leads to feeling of pain and weakness, and usually associated with symptoms and signs. Types of Diseases

Pathogenic
Caused by parasitic organisms (Pathogens).
Pathogen invades the body by contact with infected person. •It is airborne or droplet-borne.
Symptoms are headaches, sore throat, muscular pains and fever. •Treated by rest and treatment for the symptoms or Vaccine for specific strains of the virus. •Controlled by preventing overcrowding and exposure to virus.

Deficiency
Caused by a shortage of a nutrient.

Hereditary
Caused by genes passed on from generation to the next.
Gene for disease is passed to the offspring.
Controlled through genetic counselling
Physiological
Caused by a malfunction of body`s organ.
E.g. Diabetes
Controlled through education on the importance of diet and exercise.

Pathogenic diseases
1.HIV/AIDs
HIV stands for human immunodeficiency virus.
AIDS stands for the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome
Signs and Symptoms:
Persistent cough
High fever
Shortness of breath
Coughing up blood
Severe diarrhoea
Severe chest or abdominal pain
Generalized weakness
Severe headache
Seizures
Confusion or a change in mental status.
Skin rashes
Swollen lymph glands
Diarrhoea
Wasting away of body
Weakness

Treatment:
Anti-HIV or Anti-AIDS drugs and antiretroviral are given to a patient that have to be taken every day of a person`s life. •Combination therapy by taking two or more antiretroviral drugs at a time Control:

Keep to one sexual partner
Do not inject drugs
Use condom during sex
Education about the disease
Cure:
There is no cure for HIV/AIDS.
A Vaccine is being developed and tested.

2.Malaria
Caused by a parasite called Plasmodium
Transmitted via the bites of infected mosquitoes
The parasites multiply in the liver, and then infect red blood cells. Signs and Symptoms:
Fatigue
Dry (non-productive) cough
Nausea and vomiting
Muscle and/or back pain
Enlarged spleen
Fever
Chills
Headache
Cough and Diarrhoea
Sweats
Tiredness
Treatment:
Treatment varies on what type of malaria the infected person has •Mild malaria can be treated with oral medication
Severe malaria is treated with intravenous (IV) drug treatment and fluids in the hospital •Quinine is an effective in treating some forms of malaria, but other parasites have developed a resistance to quinine. Control:

Prompt and effective treatment with artemisinin-based combination therapies •Use of insecticidal nets by people at risk
Indoor residual spraying with insecticide to control the vector mosquitoes •Eliminating places around your home where mosquitoes breed Cure:
Plasmodium can be prescribed at an early stage of the disease. •Artemisin derivatives can also be used to cure malaria
Specific medications prescribed by a doctor can be used

3.Tuberculosis

Signs and Symptoms:

oLatent Tuberculosis
Have no symptoms of tuberculosis
Don't feel sick
Can't spread Tuberculosis to others
Usually have a positive Tuberculosis skin test (PPD test) reaction oActive Tuberculosis
Unexplained weight loss
Fever
Chills
Night Sweats
Weakness or fatigue
Loss of appetite
Pain in the chest
Coughing up blood or sputum
Treatment:
Treatment for tuberculosis is usually at least 6 months in duration • Treatment involves taking several different antibiotics Control:
Avoid overcrowded places
Directly observed therapy
Cure:
Rifampin (RIF)
Ethambutol
•...
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