•Health is a state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity. What is disease?
•An abnormal condition of an organism which interrupts the normal bodily functions that often leads to feeling of pain and weakness, and usually associated with symptoms and signs. Types of Diseases
•Caused by parasitic organisms (Pathogens).
•Pathogen invades the body by contact with infected person. •It is airborne or droplet-borne.
•Symptoms are headaches, sore throat, muscular pains and fever. •Treated by rest and treatment for the symptoms or Vaccine for specific strains of the virus. •Controlled by preventing overcrowding and exposure to virus.
•Caused by a shortage of a nutrient.
•Caused by genes passed on from generation to the next.
•Gene for disease is passed to the offspring.
•Controlled through genetic counselling
•Caused by a malfunction of body`s organ.
•Controlled through education on the importance of diet and exercise.
•HIV stands for human immunodeficiency virus.
•AIDS stands for the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome
Signs and Symptoms:
• Persistent cough
•Shortness of breath
•Coughing up blood
•Severe chest or abdominal pain
•Confusion or a change in mental status.
•Swollen lymph glands
•Wasting away of body
•Anti-HIV or Anti-AIDS drugs and antiretroviral are given to a patient that have to be taken every day of a person`s life. •Combination therapy by taking two or more antiretroviral drugs at a time Control:
•Keep to one sexual partner
•Do not inject drugs
•Use condom during sex
•Education about the disease
•There is no cure for HIV/AIDS.
•A Vaccine is being developed and tested.
•Caused by a parasite called Plasmodium
• Transmitted via the bites of infected mosquitoes
• The parasites multiply in the liver, and then infect red blood cells. Signs and Symptoms:
•Dry (non-productive) cough
•Nausea and vomiting
•Muscle and/or back pain
•Cough and Diarrhoea
•Treatment varies on what type of malaria the infected person has •Mild malaria can be treated with oral medication
•Severe malaria is treated with intravenous (IV) drug treatment and fluids in the hospital •Quinine is an effective in treating some forms of malaria, but other parasites have developed a resistance to quinine. Control:
•Prompt and effective treatment with artemisinin-based combination therapies •Use of insecticidal nets by people at risk
•Indoor residual spraying with insecticide to control the vector mosquitoes •Eliminating places around your home where mosquitoes breed Cure:
•Plasmodium can be prescribed at an early stage of the disease. •Artemisin derivatives can also be used to cure malaria
•Specific medications prescribed by a doctor can be used
Signs and Symptoms:
• Have no symptoms of tuberculosis
•Don't feel sick
•Can't spread Tuberculosis to others
•Usually have a positive Tuberculosis skin test (PPD test) reaction oActive Tuberculosis
•Unexplained weight loss
•Weakness or fatigue
•Loss of appetite
•Pain in the chest
•Coughing up blood or sputum
•Treatment for tuberculosis is usually at least 6 months in duration • Treatment involves taking several different antibiotics Control:
•Avoid overcrowded places
•Directly observed therapy