Discuss research into types of attachment (12)
There are quite a few theories on attachment. Each have very different and similar parts to the theory. Ainsworth, Van Ljzendoorn & Krunanburg, Schaffer & Emersion and Bowlby all have their own idea of attachment. Each theory concludes that infants form closest attachments with their primary caregiver within a certain sensitive period. If they don’t form an attachment with a caregiver in this period then they could grow up to be a ‘problem child’. Ainsworth did an experiment where she left an infant in a room with a stranger to see what the child’s reaction was when the caregiver left and came back. Ainsworth experiments showed that there were 3 types of attachment; secure, insecure resistant and insecure avoidant. The majority of children had a secure attachment. This backs up Ainsworth’s study. Van Ljzendoorn & Krunanburg did a meta-analysis on 2000 infants. It showed that the majority of children are securely attached which backs up their study. Schaffer & Emersion say that attachment is made by the Learning Theory. They say that all behaviour is learned rather than innate. They say that we must learn to be attached because we want to rather than to survive. They found that most infants had a closer bond with the caregiver that showed them the most love, not whoever fed them. This backs up the learning theory. Bowlby came up with the evolutionary theory by looking at children that had been separated from there primary caregiver. The results showed that infants need to form an attachment with a sensitive period or they’ll never be able to again and will have behavioural difficulties when older. It also showed that infants need to form attachments to survive rather than for comfort, that attachments are innate. This backs up the evolutionary theory.
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