Discuss Two Forms of Latin American Popular Culture Which Have Been Transformed Into ‘Global’ Cultures.Docx Uploaded Successfully

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Discuss two forms of Latin American ‘popular culture’ that have been transformed into ‘global’ cultures. How do you account for the popularisation of these forms with global audiences?

The term ‘globalisation’ can be a very complex term to define. For the purpose of this essay and in relation to ‘culture’ I will define globalization as the growth of the culture and values of one society to a global scale (Held, D. 200: 48). Culture, as quoted by R. Williams in Keywords (1976), is one of the two or three most ‘complicated’ words to define (Williams, R. 1976:76). ‘Culture’ can be seen as a way of life and the work and practices of intellectual and aesthetic activity (Williams, R. 1976:80). ‘Popular culture’ (or ‘Cultura Popular’ in Spanish) refers to a wide range of cultural forms, which fall outside the institutionalised and canonised forms of knowledge and aesthetic production (Marsh, 2012). They are generally defined as ‘high’ culture (Charles, M. 2000:3). Therefore, ‘Global’ culture can be seen as a way of life and the work and practices of intellectual and aesthetic activities from one society into a global scale where every individual share and practice the same activities. Although Latin America is rich in culture and has many different cultural forms, this essay will only discuss two types of ‘popular culture’ and how these cultures have become to be ‘global cultures’ and how these have been popularised and the relation it has with some theories developed in recent years. One of the cultures that will be discussed in this essay is the popular dance in Brazil known as Samba and how this music genre has developed over time and become a global music icon. The other culture this essay will discuss is Film in Latin America, the types of genres in the film industry, whilst also discussing how these have globalised.

A theory developed in the 1960’s and 1970s, known as the ‘Dependency Theory’ studies that poor countries and third world countries are not poor because they lack natural resources but because such resources in those poorer countries have been used to help developed western countries. Dependency scholars argued that because of the external ties of Third World nations that made them dependent on industrialized nations for capital, advanced technology, and expertise, these nations would remain in a state of underdevelopment or stunted economic and social growth (Dependency Theory 2001). This is a reflection on how ‘Popular Culture’ in Latin America has developed over recent years. Latin America does not have resources, such as technology, to help is cultural forms develop globally and therefore requires the aid of other countries in order to do this. To study this theory further and discuss its argument, this essay will discuss a popular music genre in Latin America and how it has become a ‘global culture’.

There are several types of popular music in Latin America. These include, out of many of them, tango, salsa, nueva canción, chicha and samba. This essay will discuss the popular dance of Brazil, which is known as samba. Samba is a style of music and dance that originated in Bahía, Brazil, which originally emerged in the early twentieth century. Although its origin began in Brazil, the music was developed from a fusion of styles from different countries such as America, Africa, India and parts of Europe but generally African because of the different slave trades between both continents. It mixes traditional African rhythms, such as the batuque as it is believed to have descended from it, with popular urban rhythms like the maxixe. Samba, however, is now an icon of Brazilian national identity. Samba can also take on several different forms such as the samba-de-enredo and the samba-cançao but the most popular one is Samba Batucada, which is a samba dance performed on the streets. This can be seen through the famously know ‘Rio de Janeiro Carnival’ (Shaw and Dennison, 2005:14). The three main...
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