Nonverbal communication has many functions in the communication process (Dunn, 1998). In 1976, Danziger outlined what he believed to be the three main roles of nonverbal communication. Presentation' is the first of three categories. Danziger argued that nonverbal communication is able to convey the structure of interpersonal relationships between individuals by displaying levels of closeness. For example, the difference between acquaintances and lovers could be acknowledged by differing levels of eye contact, proximity, bodily contact and so on. Presentation also allows for the expression status differentials via the same channels. For example, the body language used by the interviewee is likely to be subordinate to that used by the interviewer (Kando, 1977). Presentation enables us to define human interaction in terms of certain fundamental properties of social relationships (Danziger, 1976).
The second role outlined by Danziger is that of address'. When individuals wish to communicate with one another, it is important to specify for whom the message is intended. This is done via nonverbal cues such as emblems (Kendon, 1981), bodily movements, spatial behaviour and so on. Danziger argued that the forms of address confer particular social identities on the interactants.
The final category discussed by Danziger (1976) was that of feedback'. Danziger believed that nonverbal communication provides unspoken feedback, which is essential for effective communication and which is necessary for the ongoing of any interaction. Nonverbal communication is the only way an individual is able to regulate their performance in a social setting and make any necessary adjustments. For example, when a lecturer attempts to give an explanation to a room full of students, the only way they can ascertain the students' level of understanding is to watch for nonverbal cues. A nod and a smile provides enough information for the lecturer to know that they can continue, as the information has been understood. Whereas a room full of frowns will convey that more explanation is needed and the lecturer can act accordingly. This example shows the importance of nonverbal communication in everyday, social life as without it the lecturer would have to rely on verbal feedback, which would be confusing and time consuming when a large number of students are present.
Hartley (1999) had differing views on the role of nonverbal communication. He argued that representation' was also a key function in that nonverbal communication allows a channel for individuals to pass on points of view and differing perceptions and is a vital medium of information. This idea is supported by Krauss et al (1995) who studied hand gestures to determine if they help increase understanding. The results of this study show that communication understanding accuracy was better than chance when hand gestures were present.
Presentation' also appears in Hartley's (1999) definitions, but he argued that this category should also include the facilitation of how individuals wish to be perceived. For example, it...