Tectonic Activity and Hazards
Discuss the relationship between the nature of tectonic hazards and human responses to them.
The Mount Pinatubo eruption in 1991 is an example of a tectonic hazard. The response to this hazard will be different to the response in Iceland to the Mount Pelee eruption. The human responses to tectonic hazards are affected by several different factors: the income level of the location, the frequency, the magnitude, the population density of the area the hazard takes place and the type of hazard itself. This report is going to examine a range of tectonic hazards and the human responses to them. A response could be the level of planning for such hazard, aid after the disaster, or the relief given or purely doing nothing. This will vary depending on the type of tectonic hazard. For this purpose a tectonic hazard is a physical occurrence resulting from the movement or deformation of the earth’s crust, this can be volcanoes, earthquakes or tsunamis. After researching this topic I found several useful sources. One of my ain sources is the Edexcel A2 Geography text book by Dunn et al, I found this to be very useful because it included factual relevant information which is very reliable. Another source I found very useful was http://www.nationalgeographic.com/features/04/forcesofnature/interactive/ this is a reliable source because it is peer assessed and national geographic is a well known reliable source. The USGS publications was found to be very useful in finding effects of the disasters and how it affected the people. The Geo-files were another very useful source I used, this was also good for finding out the effects hazards had on people, but also the effects they had on the environment, and how these hazards were caused. I found some of my data from the Wikipedia website, however this is not as reliable as it is not peer assessed and can be edited by anyone, making me more cautious of its data and checking it where I could. Firstly this report will focus on how the type of tectonic hazard may affect the responses. Volcanoes are easier to deal with, as there is usually some prior warning of an eruption. Earthquakes are more difficult to predict and usually occur without warning, and anywhere along a fault line. It is not simply a volcano is more hazardous than an earthquake, because there are different types of earthquakes and different types of volcano. Volcanoes can cause damage by lava flows, explosive blasts, ash flows, mudflows, release of poisonous gases and landslides. The type of eruption is important, For instance, a quiet lava eruption gives human enough time to evacuate an area. Violent eruptions that occur with little warning are sometimes difficult to avoid. Volcanoes erupt differently, depending on the composition and thickness of the erupting lava, the amount of gas in the parent magma, and force of the eruption. Volcanoes that erupt lava that is low in silica and gases tend to be "quiet," mostly pouring out streams of fairly fluid lava. In a quiet eruption, the lava slowly flows out and forms flat layers that eventually make a shield volcano. The lava spreads out over a large area creating a flat base with gently sloping sides. This information was taken from Edexcel A2 Geograhy text book written by Dunn et al. This is a reliable source as it is written by geographers for geography A-Level so has been peer reviewed. An example of a shield volcano is Mt. Kilauea in Hawaii. Shield volcanoes like Kilauea have low levels of dissolved gases and silica meaning shield volcanoes are typically effusive, not explosive, and they have very fluid lava flows. Mt. Kilauea because of the type of volcano it is it is constantly erupting but not rapidly, this allows people to be very prepared for it allowing it to become a tourist site, which is safe to visit because the volcano is very predictable as it began erupting in 1983 and hasn’t stopped today. This information was taken from USGS...
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