3. Discuss the reasons leading to the rise of détente in 1968-1978. Explain why failed in1980s. During 1968-1978, The tensed relations between 2 superpowers—US and USSR relaxed. Both of them tried various means to bring about peace such as closer communication and co-operations, Armament limitation etc. However, détente failed at the end of 1970s and marked the beginning of 2nd stage of cold war. There were several reasons which led to the rise of détente and the end of détente. The First reason for the rise of détente was because both superpowers were anxious to reduce the severe financial burden on military expenses. Since both sides were trying to defeat one another during cold war, they attempted in weakening another one by producing nuclear weapons. According to statistics, The military expenses almost occupied 41% of the annual total expenses of US. USSR also suffered from severe military burden. It was a heavy burden for both of them, therefore, they were willing to slow down the armament race by producing less nuclear weapns. They adopted the non-commitment policy which helped to ease international tensions in1970s. The reduction of military costs helped the rise of détente. The second reason for the rise of détente was the fear towards a nuclear war. Since tensions between them would increase the chance of the outbreak of nuclear war. They dared not to bear the risk of devastating destruction of civilization of human beings by nuclear war. As a result, they began to adopt a relatively moderate attitude towards each other instead of being rigid. This help to reduce tensions between them. The third reason for the rise of detente was because the two superpowers had learnt lessons from Vietnam war as well as Korean War. They knew that war was not a way to contain either blocs. The US paid a hude price for defending the free world against communism. The heavy casualties and expenses drove the Americans to reconsider the intervention...
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