The costs of the Civil War were enormous. The total number of military causalities on both sides exceeded 1 million. More men died in the Civil War than in all other American wars combined until Vietnam. However, the Civil War impacted the United States well beyond just deaths. The Civil war brought fundamental alterations in the life of the nation, changing the economy, the political landscape, as well as ways of life.
Economically, wartime measures had introduced new federal involvement in both he banking and transportation systems. The National Bank Acts of 1863, 1864, and 1865 helped to create a uniform currency in the nation. It also forced many major state institutions to join the national system. This gave the federal government even greater control over the economy of the nation. This also allowed for the government to assist in the establishment of businesses. There was also rapid and mass industrialization that took place in both the North and South. Such was needed in order to supply all the products needed to survive as well as fight this modern war. This brought about the Second Industrial Revolution. Much money was invested into public transportation, especially the railroads, in order to allow for easier and swifter transportation and communication. The government had also exercised its power to support manufacturing and business interests via means of tariffs, loans, and subsides. With the support from the government, there came a rise of capitalists. The extremely rich elites invested their money in a business and in turn created even larger profits. The War also, for the first time, brought economic unity to the US. The South joined the market system, abandoning their former semi-subsistence economy. Industrialization and large economic enterprises clearly had arrived to stay.
Politically, important changes had accompanied the maintenance of the national unity. Under Republican leadership, the federal government had...
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