Tylor（1977）has pointed out that "culture is complex whole which includes knowledge, beliefs, art, morals, laws, customs and any other capabilities and habits acquired by man as a member of society". According to this definition, it is easy to know that every nation has different cultural preferences, national tastes and value standards. These factors impact on every part of management in multinational companies, especially on marketing management, human resource management and alliances management. Thus, multinational companies have to consider the cross culture issues when they run multinational business.
Different national culture causes different consume behaviors. According to Gogel and Larreche (1991), "marketing across cultures is a complex process of balancing resources and effectiveness between building product strength and identity on the one hand and increasing geographical coverage on the other hand". There are some problems will be met when multinational companies expand foreign market without analyzing the material culture of the proposed foreign market and they do not change their product standards to meet the requirement of specific market. Furthermore, the cultural diversity usually is ignored by multinational companies. They usually use their initial product promotion when they are exporting marketing campaigns in another country. For example, in Japan, people prefer to buy shampoo which uses a beautiful Japanese girl in its advertisement, but in Russia, people will never buy any washing power which uses a Japanese housewife in its advertisements (Miroshnik, 2002). If a Japan shampoo company, who does not know the cultural diversity between Japan and Russia, launches a kind of shampoo in Russia by using the same advertisement as in Japan, they will fail in the Russia market obviously. Finally, multinational companies should increase consideration that what products and brand mean to the people in different culture when they are exporting marketing campaign in a foreign country. They have to pay attention to avoiding inappropriate translations, considering different cultural behaviors and product usage.
Human resource management
Multinational companies should use different managerial behaviors to manage human resources in different cultural environment. Firstly, people who come from different cultural backgrounds have different views about the world. These views significantly affect the ability to develop a meaningful statement of company values. Thus, it is incorrect that some multinational companies simply translate their statements of values and distribute them to another country directly. This will lead the statement to be interpreted by other cultures just as small...