Discuss the Influence That Criminology Has Had on the Criminal Justice System Since 1750, Specifically Including a Discussion on Classicist, Positivist Theory and Chicago School/Subculture Theory.

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The question is what is criminology and what effect has it had on the criminal justice system? The study of criminology has had a significant effect on the criminal justice system since the 1700’s. There are three main schools of thought within criminology, they are -Classicist

-Positivist
-Chicago/Subculture theory

Discussion
Criminology is the study of causation, correction and the prevention of crime. Criminology was brought about during the late 18th century when people sought the reform of the criminal justice and penal systems. This was because they saw the system at the time as cruel and inhuman, because the systems were applied unequally and were subject to large amounts of corruption. They were seen as inhuman as they often used death or torture as forms of punishment no matter what the crime committed was (Farlex, n.d). During the early 18th century there is an obvious decrease in the amount of power held by the church and an increase in poverty. Also at this time there is a marked increase in crimes being committed. There was a great need to establish a better criminal justice system (Dawkin, J, 2011). This brought about the classicist school of thought, the leading writer within classicist theory is Cesare Banesano Beccaria (1738-1794) he wanted the law to apply equally to everyone, instead of some people being able to buy their way out of punishments others who held positions within society which allowed them to be exempt. Baccaria also wanted crimes to hold specific punishments and that these punishments should be standardised by legislatures, he believed this would avoid abuses of power within both the criminal justice system and also the penal system to some extent (Farlex, n.d). Jeremy Benthem, was also a leading writer of classicist theory, both he and Baccaria wrote that all people are rational and have free will, so therefore commit crime by choice. Benthem also believed that people made the choices they did because...
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