* A branch of mathematics concerning the study of finite or countable discrete structures. Aspects of combinatorics include counting the structures of a given kind and size (enumerative combinatorics), deciding when certain criteria can be met, and constructing and analyzing objects meeting the criteria (as in combinatorial designs andmatroid theory), finding "largest", "smallest", or "optimal" objects (extremal combinatorics and combinatorial optimization), and studying combinatorial structures arising in analgebraic context, or applying algebraic techniques to combinatorial problems (algebraic combinatorics).

* The branch of mathematics studying the enumeration, combination, and permutation of sets of elements and the mathematical relations that characterize their properties.

PROBABILITY OR LIKELIHOOD

* A measure or estimation of how likely it is that something will happen or that a statement is true. Probabilities are given a value between 0 (0% chance or will not happen) and 1 (100% chance or will happen). The higher the degree of probability, the more likely the event is to happen, or, in a longer series of samples, the greater the number of times such event is expected to happen.

GRAPH THEORY

* The study of graphs, which are mathematical structures used to model pair wise relations between objects from a certain collection. A "graph" in this context is a collection of "vertices" or "nodes" and a collection of edges that connect pairs of vertices. A graph may be undirected, meaning that there is no distinction between the two vertices associated with each edge, or its edges may be directed from one vertex to another; see graph (mathematics) for more detailed definitions and for other variations in the types of graph that are commonly considered. Graphs are one of the prime objects of study in discrete mathematics.

* A branch of mathematics concerned about how networks can be encoded and their properties...

...effective for students to improve their knowledge.
Today, students learn in the most and to the great extent if they will learn it through doing it by themselves. By introducing this type of teaching strategies, E-Module for Discrete Structures with biometrics is made to enhance the quality of education and instruction inside the classroom.
OVERVIEW OF THE CURRENT STATE OF TECHNOLOGY
In the current system of communication between...

...DISCRETE MATHEMATICS
Discrete mathematics is the study of mathematical structures that are fundamentally discrete rather than continuous. In contrast to real numbers that have the property of varying "smoothly", the objects studied in discrete mathematics – such as integers, graphs, and statements in logic – do not vary smoothly in this way, but have distinct, separated values. Discrete mathematics therefore excludes...

...SIAM REVIEW Vol. 41, No. 1, pp. 135–147
c 1999 Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics
The Discrete Cosine Transform∗
Gilbert Strang†
Abstract. Each discrete cosine transform (DCT) uses N real basis vectors whose components are π cosines. In the DCT-4, for example, the jth component of vk is cos(j + 1 )(k + 1 ) N . These 2 2 basis vectors are orthogonal and the transform is extremely useful in image processing. If the vector x gives the intensities...

...College Algebra, Pr. 2
March 25, 2015
Math Curse By: Jon Scieszka and Lane Smith
Math Curse, written by Jon Scieszka and Lane Smith, takes us on a journey with a small child who is cursed by math. His teacher’s name is Mrs. Fibonacci, who was a well know mathematician who connected a mathematical sequence found in nature. Of course Mrs. Fibonacci told her class and this child how easily math can be seen in the outside world. Our main...

...Santoro, A. (2004). “Manipulatives: A Hands-On Approach to Math.” Principal, 84 (2), (28-28).
This article speaks about the importance and significance of the use of manipulatives in the classroom, specifically in the subject of math. Manipulatives have proven to be valuable when used in a math class and are even more valuable to the children when they are young, and are learning new math concepts. Students are able to physically...

...The Discrete Cosine Transform
(DCT):
Theory and Application
1
Syed Ali Khayam
Department of Electrical & Computer Engineering
Michigan State University
March 10th 2003
1
This document is intended to be tutorial in nature. No prior knowledge of image processing concepts is
assumed. Interested readers should follow the references for advanced material on DCT.
ECE 802 – 602: Information Theory and Coding
Seminar 1 – The Discrete Cosine...

...describe system w/c are both stochastic and static
2. Continuous simulation – the system modeled are dynamic but may be deterministic and stochastic
3. Discrete event simulation – used to model systems which are assumed to change only at discrete set point of time
4. Combined/Discrete/Continuous simulation – combination of discrete and continuous
Steps in building a model and simulation
1. Define an achievable...

...Discrete wavelet transform 2
Others
Other forms of discrete wavelet transform include the non- or undecimated wavelet transform (where downsampling
is omitted), the Newland transform (where an orthonormal basis of wavelets is formed from appropriately
constructed top-hat filters in frequency space). Wavelet packet transforms are also related to the discrete wavelet
transform. Complex wavelet transform is another form.
Properties
The Haar DWT...