By payment in due course:
The instrument is discharged by payment made in due course by the party who is primarily liable to pay, or by a person who is accommodated in case the instrument was made or accepted for his accommodation, The payment must be made at or after the maturity to the holder of the instrument if the maker or acceptor is to be discharged. A payment by a party who is secondarily liable does not discharge the instrument.
By party primarily liable by becoming holder (Section 90):
If the maker of a note or the acceptor of a bill becomes its holder at or after its maturity in his own right, The Negotiable Instruments Act, 1881 4.5 instrument is discharged.
By express waiver:
When the holder of a negotiable instrument at or after its maturity absolutely and unconditionally renounces in writing or gives up his rights against all the parties to the instrument, the instrument is discharged. The renunciation must be in writing unless the instrument is delivered up to the party primarily liable.
Where an instrument is intentionally cancelled by the holder or his agent and the cancellation is apparent thereon, the instrument is discharged. Cancellation may take place; by crossing out signatures on the instrument, or by physical destruction of the instrument with the intention of putting an end to the liability of the parties to the instrument.
By discharge as a simple contract:
A negotiable instrument may be discharged in rile same way as any other contract for the payment of money. This includes for example, discharge of an instrument by innovation or rescission or by expiry of period of limitation.
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