Flood can be defined as a body of water, rising, swelling and overflowing land not usually thus covered. Also, overflowing of the bank of a stream, lake or drainage system of water into adjacent land as a result of storm, ice melt, tidal action and channel obstruction. Following the disastrous flood of 1971, which affected many areas in Malaysia, the Government has established the Natural Disaster Relief Committee in 1972 with the task of coordinating flood relief operations at national, state and district levels with a view to prevent loss of human lives and to reduce flood damage. The coordination of relief operations is the responsibility of the Natural Disaster Relief Committee which is headed by the Deputy Prime Minister of Malaysia in the National Security Council of the Prime Minister’s Department. The committee members consist of various Cabinet Ministers such as the Minister of Finance, the Minister of Social Welfare, the Minister of Natural Resources and Environment, the Minister of Science, Technology and Innovation, senior government officials such as of the Government’s Chief Secretary, the Army General, and related government agencies/departments such as DID, MMD, MACRES, Social Welfare Department, Police Department and Fire and Rescue Department. The organization of flood relief and operation is based on the Operation Procedure No. 29 published by the National Security Council. Beside, DID has published the Circular No. 2/2003 – “Guidelines for Management of Flood Disasters during the Monsoon Season and Flash Floods” which is to coordinate the preparation of flood operations at federal, state and district levels. In accordance with the Operating Procedure under the flood relief mechanism, when the river stage of any flood warning station reaches the Alert Level, DID begins to monitor closely the flood situation. When it reaches Warning Level, DID will inform the relevant flood control centers so that flood relief mechanism shall be activated. At Danger Level, considerable areas are flooded and will warrant evacuation of flood victims. During the flood season, the respective state DID office shall carry out flood forecast operation using real-time telemetric data (rainfall and river water level) and river forecasting computer models. When the river water level at any forecasting point exceeds critical level, the forecasts shall be transmitted to the Flood Operation Centers and other relevant agencies such as the National Security Division of the Prime Minister’s Department and the National and State (Police) Control Centre for flood relief/operation.
2) In your opinion list down and explain 10 types of development programs that can decrease vulnerability in Malaysia Flood Disaster.
i. Flood Forecasting and Warning System
Flood forecasting and warning system constitutes an effective and economical means to reduce loss of lives, trauma of disaster and property damage. Since 1971, DID has been designated with the task of providing flood forecasting and warning services to the public. Available records showed that flood warning services were first provided for the flood event of 1925 when floods occurred along the Kinta River in Perak and Klang River in Selangor and Bernam River in Selangor/Perak boundary. It is also known that the flood warning system based on river levels of the Kelantan River at Bradley Steps, Kuala Krai has been used to warn the people of Kota Bharu downstream since early 1900’s. The police were reading and transmitting the rainfall and water level information via VHF sets to the Flood Warning and Relief Committee in Kota Bharu. After the floods of 1971, the flood warning systems of major rivers subjected to severe flooding were reviewed. The major deficiencies identified were inadequacy of rainfall and water level station networks to provide timely and...