N.M.S.I.ARAMBEPOLA PROGRAM MANAGER ASIAN URBAN DISASTER MITIGATION PROGRAM(AUDMP)
Objectives of the discussion
• Distinguish between disaster management and risk management • Explain selected models of disaster management • Describe the strategies for risk mitigation • List activities needed for post-disaster management
ASIA IS WORLD’S MOST DISASTER AFFECTED REGION IN THE WORLD In Asia
60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0%
Cyclones Floods Volcanoes Overall
Based on World Disasters Report 1997
every year 46,000 people killed 180 million people affected USD 35 billion of damage caused by disasters
C & S America Pacific Asia
Negative Consequences of Development
Migration of population to cities Densely populated Communities More people living on marginal lands Greater unplanned settlements due to land scarcity High risk due to natural and manmade hazards
• Migration of rural population to urban will demand more economic activities for creating more employment • Create in scarcity of inhabitable land,value appreciation of available land,value depreciation of land in hazard prone areas • High demand for infrastructure development • Create in an un-affordability of quality construction • Will lead to likelihood of high damages and losses
Vulnerability scenario in the future
• Increased vulnerability to Primary hazards such as earthquakes, floods, cyclones etc. • Potential high impact due to secondary hazards like urban fire, technological and other accidents etc • High environmental problems and inconvenience to urban populations • More control measures to save facilities,innovative design options are needed
Results due to high exposure of Infrastructure
Climate for investment in infrastructure and other types of development is not encouraging in most of our countries • In most cities problems connected to governance has become normal.In most cases power sharing is seen with central government.Most areas in city are controlled by central government. • Infrastructure facilities are shared by many LGs and CG • Mitigation initiatives are not acceptable to all. • Urbanization accompanied by significant increase in the scale of poverty of urban population has put pressure on city administration.They can not get revenue from poor but services have to be provided • Urban poverty disproportionately affects weaker layers and fuels tensions (such as ethnic and racial tensions),gender sensitivity,less attention to disable groups etc • Growth of disparities between affluent and disposed will create different units such as divided cities within a city
Disaster risk management
• Disaster management can be defined as the effective organization, direction and utilization of available counter-disaster resources • The modern view is that there must be pre-disaster mitigation measures to avoid or reduce impact of disasters. Pre-disaster measures to prevent or mitigate disasters are called Risk Management
What is Management?
• Management consists of decision-making activities undertaken by one or more individuals to direct and coordinate the activities of other people in order to achieve results, which could not be accomplished by any one person acting alone. • Management is required when two or more persons combine their efforts and resources to accomplish a goal, which neither can accomplish alone.
What is disaster risk management?
• Disaster risk management includes administrative decisions and operational activities that involve • Prevention • Mitigation • Preparedness • Response • Recovery and • Rehabilitation. Disaster risk management involves all levels of governme nt. Nongovernme ntal and community-based organizations play a vital role in the process.
Traditional model-DM cycle
• The traditional approach to disaster management has been to regard it as a number of phased sequences of action or a continuum. • These can be represented as a cycle.