Definition- it’s the interpersonal aspect of managing by which subordinates are led to understand and contribute effectively and efficiently to the attainment of enterprise objectives.
A good leader evokes zeal and confidence in subordinates. Without this quality the enterprise may be superbly organized and staffed and many have excellent plans but its performance may be mediocre.
The human factor
Organizations are set up with complements of the productive factors i.e. material assets, machines, equipments, building, finance, raw materials and it’s the directing authority’s task to Manage these resources most effectively to achieve the enterprise objectives.
Nature of man
Man is basically motivated by social needs and obtains his basic sense of identity through relationships with others.
As a result of the industrial revolution and the rationalization of work, much of the meaning has gone out of work itself and must therefore be sought in the social relationships on the job.
Man is more responsive to the social forces of the peer group than to the incentives and controls of management.
Man is responsive to management to the extent that a supervisor can meet a subordinate’s social needs and needs for acceptance.
Schein, Maslow, McGregor, Argyris contend
That man’s motives fall into classes which are arranged in a hierarchy, physiological-social-egoistic etc
Man seeks to be mature on the job and is capable of being so
Man is primarily self motivated and self controlled
There is no inherent conflict between self actualization and more effective organization performance.
Schein himself feels that;
Man is not only complex, but also highly variable
Man is capable of learning new motives through his organizational experiences.
Man’s motivates in different organizations or different sub-parts of the same organization may be different.
Man can respond to different kinds of managerial strategies.
Points that a manager should know about the nature of man
a) The individual is the primary concern of man.
Man wants preferment, wants to win. He may enjoy the success of others after he has achieved, although his jealous and skeptical nature shows through. There are also unselfish heroes, who willingly have laid down their lives for others, who will step aside for the benefit of others
b) The individual will work to satisfy the demands of his basic nature if the benefits exceed the costs.
c) The individual can be led.
Man responds to leadership, can be persuaded through many desires to take the desired road, but the devices themselves must be selected, tuned and timed to the individuals needs to satisfy his basic nature.
d) The individual wants to live and work in a social environment.
e) The individual helps to create organizations to serve his needs as long as their benefits exceed the cost.
f) There is no average man.
People are not all alike and their nature may differ from time to time.
g) The individual can rise to the challenge of his full capabilities. Man is usually impatient to use his abilities to their fullest extent.
NB: leadership involves use of a motivational system plus a personality which engenders zeal in others.
Principles of directing
a) The principle of directing objective.
The more effective the directing process, the greater will be the contribution of subordinates to organizational goals. While effective directing cannot do this alone, since plans, organizations structures, adequate staffing, and effective control necessarily make their contributions, the job of getting people to understand their goals and roles and how to accomplish them – the interpersonal aspects of managing is clearly an integral and essential part of the process.
b) The principle of Harmony of objective
Different viewpoints reflect different ways of visualizing social co-operation. Fayol pointed...