Direct Elements of the Tourism Industry

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Structure and organization[edit]
The tourism industry is based on many different components and interrelated parts. For example, transport, accommodation, attractions, activities, marketing and government regulation. Many businesses span more than one sector and the impacts in one part of the tourism industry have significant implications for other sectors. The tourism industry includes:

1. those sectors which enable the tourist to travel to and from the destination (for example travel agents, airlines, bus companies, tour operators and rental car companies) 2. those sectors which are part of the product at the destination (for example, accommodation, facilities and attractions) 3. the human component of tourism (the labour force)

4. public sector or government agencies, regional tourism organisations, professional associations and industry training organisations. Direct elements of the Tourism Industry - Those areas of the tourism industry which come into direct contact with tourists * Sales

* Accommodation
* Transport
* Activities
* Attractions
* Ancillary Services
Indirect elements of the Tourism Industry - Often called support sectors. Those parts of the tourism industry which may not come into direct contact with tourists, but without the rest of the industry could not function. * Infrastructure

* Roads
* Airports
* Communications
* Public Toilets
* Signs
* Manufacturing
* Building Industry
* Electricity
* Water supply
* Sewerage and waste disposal
Direct Elements[edit]
Water Transportation[edit]
Transport by water can be an attraction in itself whether you are travelling on a cruise ship in the Mediterranean or on a ferry between Wellington and Picton. Travelling by water has been more popular as tourists seek to avoid the frustrations of air travel with its airport delays, congestion and the lack of comfort in the air (unless travelling first class!). Cruising has undergone a revival and all forms of recreational pursuits on the water including yachting and jet boating have expanded to fulfil this demand. Air[edit]

Advances in aviation technology has meant that travel by air is now relatively safe, economical, quick and reasonably comfortable. The development of the jet airliner after World War II to the first jumbo jet, the Boeing 747 in 1970 led to rapid falls in seat cost per passenger kilometre. The advances have continued with the Airbus ‘super jumbo’ A380 a double-decker aircraft seating between 550-800 passengers enters service in late 2007 with Singapore Airlines operating the aircraft on the London -Singapore – Sydney route. A380 cabin cross section showing economy class seating There are two basic type of air transport operation:

1. Scheduled services
2. Charter services
Scheduled services operate on defined routes, domestic or international, for which licences have been granted by the governments concerned. The airline must operate on the basis of their timetable regardless of the passenger loading. Fully state owned carriers such as Singapore Airlines and the Emirates are known as the national flag-carriers. Even when the carrier has been privatised as in the case of British Airways the airline is still seen as the national flag carrier. Air New Zealand was privatised but after the 9/11 disaster 80 per cent of the carrier was returned into public ownership. Air transport is very important to the national economy of a country and a government will often assist in times of crisis. Low Cost Airlines LCA’s or LCLF (low cost low fare) carriers has been a major development in scheduled services in the last decade. A total of 80 million people travelled on European no-frills carriers...
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