Direct and Indirect

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  • Topic: Past tense, Grammatical tenses
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  • Published : January 4, 2011
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Topic: Direct and Indirect Speech
We may report the words of a speaker in two ways:-
(i).we may quote his actual words. This is called Direct Speech. (ii).We may report what he said without quoting his exact words. This is called Indirect Speech. For example: Direct:Ahmed said, “I am very busy now”.

Indirect:Ahmed said that he was busy then.

Direct Speech is that form of narration in which the actual words of a speaker are reported. It may be divided into two parts: the reported speech, i.e. the actual words of the speaker (its VERB is called Reported Verb); and the reporting speech, i.e. the introductory words added to the reported speech (its VERB is called Reporting Verb). The reported speech is marked off by inverted commas. The reporting speech comes before or after the commas.

Indirect Speech is that form of speech in which what one speaker says is reported by another with utmost accuracy but without using his actual words.

It will be noticed that in Direct Speech, we use inverted commas to mark off the exact words of the speaker. In Indirect Speech we do not. It will be further noticed that in changing the above Direct Speech into Indirect certain changes have been made. Thus:

(i).we have used the conjunction that before the Indirect statement. (ii).The pronoun I is changed to he. (The 1st Person Pronoun is changed into 3rd Person Pronoun).
(iii).The verb am is changed to was .(Present Tense is changed to Past). (iv).The adverb now is changed to then.

1.ASSERTIVE SENTENCES
Definition: An assertive sentence makes a positive (Affirmative), negative or forceful statement. For example:
1.Islamabad is the capital of Pakistan. (Affirmative or positive)
2.Death is not the end of life.(Negative)
3.She did go to school.(Emphatic) or forceful statement. When Assertive Sentence is changed from the Direct into the Indirect Speech, all changes explained earlier take place.

EXAMPLES:
| | | | |Sr.No. |DIRECT SPEECH |INDIRECT SPEECH | |1 |She says, “I do not like this dress” |She says that she does not like that dress. | |2 |He will say, “My father has bought these books for me. |He will say that his father has bought those books for him. | |3 |The lion said to the fox, “Many animals come here every day.” |The lion said to the fox that many animals came there every day. | |4 |The teacher said to us, “It is 9 o’clock by my watch now.” |The teacher said to us that it was 9 o’clock by his watch then. | |5 |The monitor says to the teacher, “Sir, the bell has gone.” |The monitor says to the teacher respectfully that the bell has gone. | |6 |The boys said, “It is the Quaid’s birthday today.” |The boys said that it was the Quaid’s birthday that day. | |7 |I shall tell my friends, “Tomorrow is a holiday.” |I shall tell my friends that the next (coming or following) day is a | | | |holiday. | |8 |She said, “I did not go to school yesterday.” |She said that she had not gone to school the previous day. | |9 |He said, “It will rain tonight.” |He said that it would rain that night. | |10 |He will say to you, “All right, I shall come.” |He will say to you that he will come....
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