The armed forces are the instruments of foreign policy, not its master No successful and no peaceful foreign policy is possible without observance of this rule. No nation can pursue a policy of compromise with the military determining the ends and means of foreign policy. The armed forces are instruments of war; foreign policy is an instrument of peace. It is true that the ultimate objectives of the conduct of war and of the conduct of foreign policy are identical: Both serve the national interests. Both, however, differ fundamentally in their immediate objectives, in the means they employ, and in the modes of thought they bring to bear upon their respective tasks. The objective of war is simple and unconditional: to break the will of the enemy. Its methods are equally simple and unconditional: to bring the greatest amount of violence to bear upon the most vulnerable spots in the enemy's armor. The military leader lives in the present and in the immediate future. The sole question before him is how to win victories as cheaply and quickly as possible and how to avoid defeat. The objective of foreign policy is relative and conditional: to bend. not to break, the will of the other side as far as necessary in order to safeguard one's own vital interests without hurting those of the other side. The methods of foreign policy are relative and conditional: not to advance by destroying the obstacles in one's way, to retreat before them, to circumvent them, to maneuver around them, to soften and dissolve them slowly by means of persuasion, negotiations, and pressure.
To surrender the conduct of foreign affairs to military is to destroy the possibility of compromise and thus surrender the cause of peace. The military mind knows nothing how to operate between the absolutes of victory and defeat. It knows nothing of that patient intricate and subtle maneuvering of diplomacy, whose main purpose is to avoid the absolutes of victories and defeats and meet the other side on the middle ground of negotiated compromise. A foreign policy conducted by military men according to the rules of the military art can only end in war.
Peace must be the goal of any foreign policy. Foreign policy must be conducted in such a way as to make the preservation of peace possible and not to make the outbreak of war inevitable. In a society of sovereign nations military force is a necessary instrument of foreign policy. Yet this instrument of foreign policy should not become the master of foreign policy. As war is fought in order to make peace possible, foreign policy should be conducted in order to make peace permanent. For the performance of both tasks, the subordination of the military under civilian authorities which are constitutionally responsible for the conduct of foreign affairs is an indispensable prerequisite. 2. Give Russian equivalents of the following words and phrases.' An observance; to determine; the ends and means; an objective; to conduct; vulnerable; to bend; to safeguard; to retreat; to circumvent; an outbreak; a subordination; indispensable; a prerequisite; to pursue a policy; to meet the other side on the middle ground; violence; to surrender, a conduct.
3. Give English equivalents of the following words and phrases. Определять; вспышка (начало); вести; отступать; подчинение; цель; уязвимый; сгибать; предпосылка; соблюдение; уступать/сдавать; проводить политику; крайне необходимый; цели и средства; делать уступки; защищать; обходить; насилие, проведение.
4. Read the article again. Using the article and the words from the exercises above finish the following sentences.
1. The objective of a war is... is simple and unconditional: to break the will of the enemy. 2. The method of conducting war is ... are equally simple and unconditional: to bring the greatest amount of violence to bear upon the most vulnerable spots in the enemy's armor. 3. The objective of foreign policy is...relative and conditional: to bend. not to break,...