Review of Dinoflagellate Bloom in term athropological effect and biogeographic range. Abstract
Dinoflagellates are common and abundant to the marine and estuarine system, it were characterized by the 2 flagella that are located on the girdle and sulcus. The girdle grooves divides the body into 2 parts, in which its orientation, size and shape can be used to indentify them in morphological taxonomy. Toxic dinoflagellates are known to cause diarhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP), paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP), neurotoxic shellfish poisoning (NSP), and Ciguateria shellfish poisoning (CSP), hepatotoxicity, and toxicity to the marine fauna. Thus their bloom is harmfull to the ecosystem and to human health. Dinoflagellates can bloom by the natural means, but this occurance can be advance by the anthropogenic nutrient from the agriculture, aquaculture and animal farming industry, the change in the N: P ratio also encourages the dinoflagellates to overcompete the other algal species. Dinoflagellates distribution is limited to the biogeographical range of each species, there are 3 common distribution of dinoflagellates with the example of tropical and subtropical distribution of Pyrodinium bahamese, mid to high latitude distribution of Alexandrum catenella, that have a diverse distribution ranging from temperate to tropical water of Prorocentrum lima. Introduction
Harmful Algal Bloom (HAB) is an algal bloom which causes environmental problem includes the loss of seagrass habitats, coral reef degradation, death of marine mammal, red tides, fish kill, and outbreak of shellfish poisoning(Masó & Garcés, 2006). This phenomena were mainly caused by either the production of toxins or in the method where the cell physical structure or their congregated biomass can affect the organism and alter the food web dynamics(Anderson et al., 2002). HAB can occur without any anthropogenic intervention; this occurrence has been noted by James Cook and George Vancouver describing discoloured water and poisonous shellfish(Prakash et al., 1971), but their distribution and abundance can be advanced by human activity such as human induced cyst transportation by the mean of ballast water, movement of shellfish stock, and floating plastic debris, over enrichment of coastal water by nutrient from agricultural run off, Industrialization accelerated warming trends, and the decreased in biomass of filter feeding organism from changing environmental condition, water quality degradation, or overfishing, which reduce the predation pressure on the harmful dinoflagellates by elimination of the predator(Masó & Garcés, 2006, Graneli & Turner, 2006). One of the organisms that are responsible for the HAB such as red tide is the toxic dinoflagellates, thus this review is focusing on the taxonomic identification and the factors controlling the dinoflagellates bloom. Dinoflagellates
Dinoflagellates are a large group of flagellated protist that are characterized by having two flagella, one which is transverse and the other which is longitudinal. The transverse flagella are positioned in a groove which are called girdle, and the longitudinal flagellum are positioned on the groove that are known as sulcus. The girdle divides the cell into 2 parts, the upper part as epicone, and the lower part as hypocone. The interactions between the two parts in term of its size, shape and orientation are important for morphological taxonomy(Graneli & Turner, 2006). Harmful dinoflagellates have display directed movement in response to the gravity, light and chemical stimuli, in which photosynthetic dinoflagellates are attracted to light and display a vertical migration by moving to lower depth during the day and sank to the deeper depth during the night to acquire nutrient and avoid predator. the opposite has been noted on the heterotroph movement behaviour, this mechanism involves geotaxis, circadian rhythm, and chemosensory capability(BurkHolder et al., 2006)....
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