Objectives
1. To __ (I will provide this anyway)
2. To __

Theoretical Background
Theories, functions, operations, methods, diagrams, schematics, examples, etc about the topic of the experiment are thoroughly discussed in this section. Here, we can see the desired results of the experiment. About 2 to 3 pages. WARNING: Do not copy and paste from Wikipedia. Remove all hyperlinks and edit properly. Note your references in the appropriate section of this lab report.

Materials and Equipment
* 7400 Quad 2-input NAND gate
* 7402 Quad 2-input NOR gate
* …
* Logic Trainer
* Digital Multimeter

Procedures, Data and Results
1. These are usually provided. Pictures (of the experimental set-up, and NOT the members), data, tables and results are presented here.

Table No.1: Description
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2. Next

3. Figures
Figure No. #: Description

4. Etc.

Observations, Conclusion and Recommendation

Observations
Discuss what you have observed about the experiment. Example is about how the high level of voltage at the output of the gate decreases from 5v at the input to about 3.8v. Also you may include how sensitive the ICs are. Etc.

Conclusion
Based on your observations, you may draw your conclusions here. Write a scientific explanation of the observations above.

Recommendations
Discuss how to improve the experiment. How to be minimize errors, save time, etc.

Questions and Answers

1. What is ___? (Questions will be provided)
Answer: _______________________________________________________

2. How is ____?
Answer: _______________________________________________________

3. Etc

References
Follow APA style

Member’s Participation:

Appendices
Appendix A: Data Sheet for ___
Appendix B: Others that you think is necessary to include in this section
(Attach the sections after this page)

...A logicgate is an elementary building block of a digital circuit. Most logicgates have two inputs and one output. At any given moment, every terminal is in one of the two binaryconditions low (0) or high (1), represented by different voltage levels. The logic state of a terminal can, and generally does, change often, as the circuit processes data. In most logicgates, the low state is approximately zero volts (0 V), while the high state is approximately five volts positive (+5 V).
There are seven basic logicgates: AND, OR, XOR, NOT, NAND, NOR, and XNOR.
The AND gate is so named because, if 0 is called "false" and 1 is called "true," the gate acts in the same way as the logical "and" operator. The following illustration and table show the circuit symbol and logic combinations for an AND gate. (In the symbol, the input terminals are at left and the output terminal is at right.) The output is "true" when both inputs are "true." Otherwise, the output is "false."
AND gate
Input 1
Input 2
Output
1
1
1
1
1
The OR gate gets its name from the fact that it behaves after the fashion of the logical inclusive "or." The output is "true" if either or both of the inputs are "true." If both inputs are "false," then the...

...Introduction
LOGICGATES
• Basic LogicGates • Truth Tables • Logical Functions
Truth Tables Logical Expression Graphical Form G hi l F
Most Difficult Reading Topics
• Logicgates and figuring out how to read them th • Logical Circuit Equivalence • NAND NOR and XOR truth tables • Using the rules to create and read the logicgates using 0's and 1's • Transistor implementation • Difference between positive logic and negative logicLogic
• Formal logic is a branch of mathematics that deals th ti th t d l with true and false values instead of numbers. • In the mid-19th century, George Bool developed many Logic ideas. • Boolean logic deals with equations where the operators are “AND” or “OR” instead of “add” and “multiply”.
1
Electric Logic
• Logical values can easily be expressed by an electrical circuit. l t i l i it • “True” or “1” can be defined as voltage on a wire while “False” or “0” can be defined as no voltage. We will use positive logic. • Analog values can be anything while digital only has discrete values, 0 or 1 • Electrical devices called “gates” can implement the logical
LogicGates & Symbols
Note that gates can have more than 2 inputs.
AND...

...WORKING OF LOGICGATES
SUBMITTED BY:-
Shamil Choudhury
ROLL__________ No_____________
Karimganj Junior College Of Science
CONTENTS……..
TOPICS Page No
1. CERTIFICATE 1
2. INTRODUCTION 2
3. THEORY 3-4
4. EXPERIMENT 5-6
5. RESULTS 7
6. CONCLUSION. 7
7. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT 8
8. REFERENCE 9
INTRODUCTION
A gate is adigital circuit that follows certain logical relationship
between the input and output voltages. Therefore, they are generally known as logicgates — gates because they control the flow of information. The five common logicgates used are NOT, AND, OR, NAND, NOR. Each logicgate is indicated by a symbol and its function is defined by a truth table that shows all the possible input logic level combinations with their respective output logic levels. Truth tables help understand the behavior of logicgates. These logicgates can be realized using semiconductor devices. Here we will investigate on the working of first three logicgates i.e. OR, AND, and NOT gate.
OBJECTIVE OF THE PROJECT
To demonstrate the working of...

...Lab 1: DigitalLogic Lab Introduction
Date of experiment: 1/30/2014
Date of Submission: 6/2/2014
Submitted by: Evgeniya Koshelyaevskaya
Group partners : Constantin Bercov, Rachel Revzin
College of Staten Island
Objective
1. To get familiar with the Cadet station and the basic equipment used for the experiment.
2. To investigate the behavior of the IC Chips obtained from the technician.
3. Compare theoretical data with the obtained experimental data to verify the logicgates.
Apparatus and Materials
1. CADET Station
2. Logic probe
3. Wires
4. IC Chips
a. 7400 (two-input NAND)
b. 7402 (two-input NOR)
c. 7404 (inverter)
d. 7408 (two-input AND)
e. 7432 (two-input OR)
f. 7486 (two-input XOR)
Discussion
1. After getting familiar with the station provided by the technician we located all the logic indicators on the right side and logic switches on the left side of the CADET as well as we noted the holes in the plastic strip near the switches and LED’s that were needed in order to connect the wires.
2. It is necessary to make sure that +5/+V switches near the logic indicators are set to +5 V which is default logic voltage levels.
3. Connection of logic switches with the logic indicators provides a low output before we turn on the switch and after we do the switch...

...1
Domino Logic
Garvit Bansal 2010TT10918, EEL-201 Student
Abstract—The need of the hour is urgency, to gain maximum optimization. So due to their faster switching speed and lower surface area usage the domino logical circuits are gaining much popularity. This paper discusses the domino logic, their advantages and their issues and discusses some possible solution to these problems .It also discusses some optimization techniques. Index Terms— CMOSlogic, Charge Sharing, Charge Leakage Domino logic, Dynamic logic
of major flaws. a) Usage of 2 different types of FETS. Usually p-FETs are either larger or slower that the n-FETs [4]. b) For every input used we use 1 p-FET and 1 n-FET so in total for N inputs we use 2N FETs which increases the surface area used by the circuit. To tackle the number of FETs used per input we use dynamic logic circuit which uses the concept of precharge and evaluate switch and uses N+2 FETs for N inputs. (N number of n-FETs, one extra n-FET as evaluation switch and one pFET as precharge switch).
I. INTRODUCTION
W
the advancement of technology the demand for faster performance and small scale instruments are rising, Many researchers are spending their time to make the things as small as possible and increase the speed to maximum possible limit. Talking about digital circuits with every generation the amount of improvement is massive....

...INTRODUCTION
Digital electronics is classified into combinational logic and sequential logic. Combinational logic output depends on the inputs levels, whereas sequential logic output depends on stored levels and also the input levels. A sequential circuit is specified by a time sequence of inputs, outputs, and internal states.
There are two types of sequential circuits. Their classification depends on the timing of their signals:
* Synchronous sequential circuits - This type of system uses storage elements called flip-flops that are employed to change their binary value only at discrete instants of time. Sequential circuits have a clock signal as one of their inputs. All state transitions in such circuits occur only when the clock value is either 0 or 1 or happen at the rising or falling edges of the clock depending on the type of memory elements used in the circuit.
* Asynchronous sequential circuits - This is a system whose outputs depend upon the order in which its input variables change and can be affected at any instant of time.
Sequential Circuit Memory Elements: Latches, Flip-Flops
Latches and flip-flops are the basic single-bit memory elements used to build sequential circuit with one or two inputs/outputs, designed using individual logicgates and feedback loops:
Latches – The output of a latch depends on its current inputs and on its previous...

...Activity 6.3.2 LogicGates Introduction A two-valued number system is the basis for all of the powerful computers and electronic devices in the world. Those two values are 0 and 1. Everything in the digital world is based on this binary system. While it seems very simple, the binary system is used to create the logic that dictates the actions of complex and simpler digital systems. But how do processors know what to do with all of those 0s and 1s Gates are used. Gates process the 0s and 1s and react based on how they are designed to function. When many gates are combined, computers can solve complex problems by using the logic set forth by the combination and order of the gates. Equipment LogicGates presentation Gateway To Technology notebook Procedure You will decipher and create logic statements to compare conditions with outputs. Your instructor will present Logic Gates.ppt while you complete this document. Digital Signals Describe how digital signals are represented. The columns below represent 8 segments of time. Each time segment can hold a digital signal. Trace a wave pattern to represent the binary number 10001101. Complete the chart for the NOT Gate. SymbolFunction A logicgate that...

...values together. Adders are a very common design in digital design. For example, a CPU will use an adder to have its program counter point to its next instruction. This is done by adding a constant value of 4 to the current instructions memory address. You will be using adders both here, and in future labs. You will be shown three different kinds of adders. They are the half-adder, the full-adder. And the ripple carry adder. The purpose is to show you not only what each is, but why they are important. You will learn why each is important as you go through this lab. After creating our adder designs in Quartus, you will test your design on Altera’s DE2 programmable board. The DE2 board will be explained later in this lab.
HALF-ADDER
A half-adder (HA) is an adder that accepts two inputs and gives two outputs. The two inputs are the two single bit binary values that will be added to each other. The two outputs represent the sum. We need two outputs (rather than one output) because the sum may have a carry bit. For example, in binary, 1+0 = 1. This situation has no carry bit in the output. In other words, the output itself is 1 bit. However, if we add 1+1, we get 10. This output is 2 bits long. This is a case where the carry-bit for the output is needed. A half adder consists of two logicgates. These are an AND gate, and an Exclusive OR gate. A diagram of a half adder is shown below.
. Figure 1: Half...