Practical 12: Digestion in Humans
Aim: To distinguish between 5 liquids to come to a conclusion from which region of the alimentary canal it was extracted from.
In this practical, we have been given 5 unknown solutions hence it is not possible for us without any logical analysis to come up with a conclusion regarding the positioning along the alimentary canal. We cannot come up with a proper answer or predict results without running through the tests.
I though can base my analysis on the following hypothesis:-
The more the starch, the higher up the alimentary canal the liquid is. The more the reducing sugar, the lower down the alimentary canal the liquid is. The more the protein, the higher up the alimentary canal the liquid is. The more the fats, the more the higher up alimentary canal the liquid is.
Description of the appearance of liquids at the beginning:-
D-33: Light White cloudy Emulsion
D-34: Clear transparent liquid
D-35: White cloudy emulsion
D-36: Clear transparent liquid
D-37: White cloudy emulsion
Materials: Benedict solution, Iodine solution, Ethanol, Copper (II) Sulphate Liquids (D33, D34, D35, D36, D37)
Apparatus: 250 ml glass beaker, Test tube holder, Test tube rack, 5 test tubes, White tile, 10 ml measuring cylinder, Bunsen burner and other heating apparatus
The digestible carbohydrates are broken into simpler components by enzymes in the saliva (a juice produced by the pancreas) and in the lining of the small intestine. Starch is digested in two steps: First, an enzyme amylase in the saliva and pancreatic juice breaks down the Amylose in the starch into molecules called maltose; then an enzyme in the lining of the small intestine, maltase, splits the maltose into glucose molecules that can be absorbed into the blood. Glucose is carried through the bloodstream to the liver, where it is stored or used to provide energy for the work of the body. Through this piece of information, we can roughly come to a conclusion on the origin of the extract. Iodine Test
The Amylose present in starch is responsible for the formation of a blue-black color in the presence of iodine. The iodine molecule slips inside of the Amylose coil. Iodine is not very soluble in water; hence the iodine reagent is made by dissolving iodine in water in the presence of potassium iodide. This makes a linear tri-iodide ion complex along with it soluble. The tri-iodide ion slips into the coil of the starch causing an intense blue-black color. Chemical formula: I2 I - => I3 -
Align the 5 test tubes in the rack and then number them parallel to the five liquids. 2.
Measure exactly 2 cm3 of its liquid and pour it into its respective test tubes. 3.
Now add Iodine solution to the liquid drop-by-drop (max 3 drops) 4.
And now record your observation.
Blue Black: ++ starch present is high quantity
Dirty green + starch present in minute quantity
Yellow-Brown - starch not present
Type of Liquid
Turns blue-black in a single drop
(Blue more prominent)
Turns blue-black in a single drop
(Black more prominent)
Iodine solution remains yellowish- brown in colour
Turns blue-black in a single drop (Black more prominent)
Turns dirty green in colour after 2 drops. Has a tinge of blue Starch present
The starch was not at all present in D-35 but it was in the rest of the test liquids. This makes it evident that D-35 is the liquid that went the most far down the alimentary canal as all its starch was broken down totally.
Both liquids D-34 and D-36 have acquired the blue black colour after just a single drop. We are unable to distinguish them as of yet but we can say that they are both extracted from near the start of the alimentary canal.
Liquid D-33 also gives the blue-black colour...
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