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The term mustard oil is used for three different oils that are made from mustard seeds: * A fatty vegetable oil resulting from pressing the seeds, * An essential oil resulting from grinding the seeds, mixing them with water, and extracting the resulting volatile oil by distillation. * An oil made by infusing mustard seed extract into another vegetable oil, such as soybean oil The pungency of mustard oil is due to the presence of allyl isothiocyanate, an activator of the TRPA1 channel. Contents * 1 Pure oil * 2 Effects on health * 3 Nutritional information * 4 Solution * 5 Use in North Indian cultural and artistic activities * 6 References * 7 External links
| Pure oil
Ox-powered mill grinding mustard seed for oil
This oil has a distinctive pungent taste, characteristic of all plants in the mustard (Brassicaceae) family (for example, cabbage, cauliflower, turnip, radish, horseradish or wasabi). It is often used for cooking in North India, Eastern India, Nepal, Bangladesh and Pakistan. In Bengal, Orissa, Assam and Nepal, it is the traditionally preferred oil for cooking. The oil makes up about 30% of the mustard seeds. It can be produced from black mustard (Brassica nigra), brown Indian mustard (Brassica juncea), and white mustard (Brassica hirta). The characteristic pungent flavour of mustard oil is due to Allyl isothiocyanate. Mustard oil has about 60% monounsaturated fatty acids (42% erucic acid and 12% oleic acid); it has about 21% polyunsaturated fats (6% the omega-3 alpha-linolenic acid and 15% the omega-6 linoleic acid), and it has about 12% saturated fats. Mustard seeds, like all seeds of the Brassica family, including canola (rapeseed) and turnip, have high levels of omega-3 (6–11%) and are a common, cheap, mass-produced source of plant-based (therefore, vegetarian) omega-3 fatty acids (see Indo-Mediterranean diet in the links below). Flax (linseed) oil has 55% plant-based omega-3 but is uncommon as a table or cooking oil. Soybean oil has 6% omega-3 but contains over 50% omega-6, the fatty acid that competes with the omega-3 function. Other than rapeseed and mustard oils, there are few other common sources of plant based omega-3 in Western and Indian diets. Especially when omega-6 intake is kept low, humans can convert the plant omega-3 into one of the fish omega-3s, eicosapentaenoic acid, in limited amounts, a useful source for vegetarians. In India, mustard oil is often heated almost to smoking before it is used for cooking. However, high heat may damage the omega-3 in the oil, reducing its unique role in health. Mustard oil is often used as a body oil for massage (see ayurveda), and is thought to reduce skin dryness, and improve blood circulation, muscular development and skin texture; the oil is also thought to be antibacterial and may even repel insects. Effects on health
The effects of erucic acid from edible oils on human health are controversial. However no negative health effects have ever been documented in humans. A four-to-one mixture of erucic acid and oleic acid constitutes Lorenzo's oil; an experimental treatment for the rare neurobiology disorder adrenoleukodystrophy. Mustard oil was once considered unsuitable for human consumption in the United States, Canada, and the European Union due to the high content of erucic acid. This is because of early studies in rats. Subsequent studies on rats have shown that they are less able to digest vegetable fats (whether they contain erucic acid or not) than humans and pigs. Chariton et al. suggests that in rats: “Inefficient activation of erucic acid to erucyl-CoA and a low level of activity of triglyceride lipase and enzymes of betaoxidation for erucic acid probably contribute to the accumulation and retention of cardiac lipid.” Before this process was fully understood it led to the belief that erucic acid and mustard...
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