THE OVERVIEW OF THE RELATED LITERATURE
2.1 Teaching and Learning English as a Foreign Language.
Language is very important to communicate in society. Language is made up of sounds, words and sentence. Brown states, “language is more than a system or communication. It involves whole person, culture, educational, developmental communicative process”. It means Language is measured as a mean of communication and it is difficult to do all activities without language. Based on the abstract of language above we can see that someone needs in connecting communication each other, acquiring knowledge and skill, taking education and establishing relation with other people. In teaching learning process, the teacher of course uses language to communicate and to transfer the material to the students. The teaching learning processes are not going on without language. It shows that language will take the important role in communication and the important aspect of education in teaching and learning process in this era particularly English. In Indonesia, English language not used in daily by society but accuracy really focus in learning English. English just is taught in schools, but it does not play an essential role in social life. Harmer says, “English as a foreign language is generally taken to apply the students who one studying general English at the schools and institutes in their own country or as transitory visitors in a target-language country”. It means that the purpose of teaching English as the first foreign language is to create a situation that the students can use English as a means of communication. The students should be put into situation that they can use English for communication both oral and written. In teaching English as a foreign language, the teacher should have known what teacher should do. Brown state “teaching is facilitating learning, enabling the learner to learn, setting the conditions for learning and showing or helping someone to learn how to do something. Teaching also means giving instruction guiding in study of something, providing with knowledge, and causing to know or understands.” It means that teaching is a process that should be done by teacher based on the experiences, knowledge and material preparation the aim of teaching can be reached. And it is also hoped that at the end of teaching English as a foreign language activities students will understand the subject that is taught.
In teaching English as a foreign language, the teacher should prepare the material instruction, media, and technique well. Because teaching and learning language can be regarded as process. Material having a logical connection with a subject matter or the consequential events or facts, or the knowledge of which would significantly affect a decision or course of action.
Many materials in teaching and leaning English there many such as grammar, vocab, pronunciation, it include on four skills in English learning, they are listening, speaking, reading and writing. The materials are the process learning, Such as the students get the material about how to tell their exprience by oral communication in speaking skill.
Speaking is a crucial in language learning and teaching. Despite its importance, for many years, teaching speaking has been undervalued and English language teachers have continued to teach speaking just as a repetition of drills or memorization of dialogues. However, today's world requires that the goal of teaching speaking should improve students communicative skills, because, only in that way, students can express themselves and learn how to follow the social and cultural rules appropriate in each communicative circumstance.
2.2 Definition of speaking
According to Theodore Huebner, language is essentially speech, and speech is basically communication by sounds. According to him, speaking is a skill used by someone in daily life communication whether at school or outside....