The various methods of production are not associated with a particular volume of production. Similarly, several methods may be used at different stages of the overall production process.
With Job production, the complete task is handled by a single worker or group of workers. Jobs can be small-scale/low technology as well as complex/high technology.
Low technology jobs: here the organisation of production is extremely simply, with the required skills and equipment easily obtainable. This method enables customer's specific requirements to be included, often as the job progresses. Examples include: hairdressers; tailoring
High technology jobs: high technology jobs involve much greater complexity - and therefore present greater management challenge. The important ingredient in high-technology job production is project management, or project control. The essential features of good project control for a job are:
- Clear definitions of objectives - how should the job progress (milestones, dates, stages)
- Decision-making process - how are decisions taking about the needs of each process in the job, labour and other resources
Examples of high technology / complex jobs: film production; large construction projects (e.g. the Millennium Dome)
As businesses grow and production volumes increase, it is not unusual to see the production process organised so that "Batch methods" can be used.
Batch methods require that the work for any task is divided into parts or operations. Each operation is completed through the whole batch before the next operation is performed. By using the batch method, it is possible to achieve specialisation of labour. Capital expenditure can also be kept lower although careful planning is required to ensure that production equipment is not idle. The main aims of the batch method are, therefore, to:
- Concentrate skills (specialisation)
- Achieve high equipment utilisation...