Different Types of Chemical Bonding

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Compare and contrast the structure and bonding in ionic, covalent and metallic species. Relate the structure and bonding to the properties of the species. Ionic, covalent and metallic bonding are all various types of bonding found between atoms, but there are big differences between how they work, and what atoms they bond. Ionic bonding is when a metal and a non-metal are stuck together by an electrostatic bond. An ion is formed when electrons are transferred from one atom to another. As electrons have a negative charge, the atom that loses the electrons becomes positive, and the atom that gains electrons becomes negative. Atoms do this so that they can have a full outer shell of electrons. Electrostatic bonds then hold these positive and negative ions together very strongly. When atoms are bonded like this it is called ionic bonding – bonding of ions. An example of an ionic bond is sodium chloride. Sodium only has one electron in its outer shell and chlorine has 7. The sodium atom loses and electron to become Na+ and the chlorine atoms gains this electron and becomes Cl-. Electrostatic bonds then hold these oppositely charged ions together. Ionic crystals are giant lattices of ions. The structure is called giant because it is made up of the same basic unit repeated over and over. The structure of ionic compounds decides their physical properties. Ionic compounds conduct electricity when they are molten or dissolved, but not when solid. This is because ions in liquid or aqueous form are free to move around and can therefore conduct electricity. In a solid the ions are fixed in place by the strong bonds. Ionic compounds also have high melting and boiling points. The giant ionic lattices are held together by very strong electrostatic forces and so a large amount of energy is required to overcome these forces, which leads to very high melting and boiling points. Sodium chloride is an example of an ionic compound, and its melting point is 801oC. Ionic compounds do...
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