Enormous improvements have been made in IPv6 over IPv4.
Firstly, IPv6 has longer address than IPv4. IPv6 extends the address length from 32 bits to 128 bits, creating a vast number of available addresses. The Second major improvement of IPv6 is the simplification of the header. IPv6 contains only 7 fields as compared to 13 fields in IPv4. As a result, router can process packets faster, resulting in the improvement of throughput. Thirdly, support for multicasting, IPv4 repeatedly routes multiple copies of data to each and every receiver, creating obvious congestion problems. IPv6 introduces an anycast address to help with this problem. Anycast identifies nodes that can share packets, and routers use that information to send just one set of data to service several nodes. Fourthly, better support for security, IPv4 has trouble supporting security because an application can encode operations at only one length: 40 bytes. IPv6 permits encoding at variable lengths and at lengths greater than 40 bytes. Now applications can support authentication and security encapsulation. This means it would be possible to, say, mark packets with security information and have nodes permit or deny access to a segment of the network based on that information. Fifth, autoconfiguration, meaning, IPv6 hosts can plug into the network and start communicating without requiring special configuration, whether the connection is to isolated stand-alone networks or to a large corporate network. A link local address is autoconfigured from the embedded EUI-64 identifier of the interface and tested to ensure that it does not duplicate an address already in use by another node on the link. Once the address is deemed unique, the node sends out solicitations to locate routers and obtain additional configuration, including prefixes needed to generate global-scope addresses. Equipped with one or more addresses, the node can begin communicating. REFERENCES:
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