Difference in Drug Use Trends in Canada V. United States

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"Canada-United States Border Drug Threat Assessment." Public Safety Canada. Oct. 2004. 15 Feb. 2008 . Canada and the United States are firmly committed to the fight against illicit drugs and their two-way movement across our shared border. The strong relationship between our two governments, and in particular, our respective law enforcement agencies on this issue is a model of international cooperation. Traffickers of each of the illicit substances can be individuals, but are increasingly part of organized crime groups. Smugglers use a variety of conveyances, from personal vehicles to watercraft to commercial aircraft in order to transport illicit drugs in both directions across our shared border. The problem of illicit drugs and their smuggling across our shared border will persist, as will the need for our countries to work together to combat it. Continual improvements in cooperation and information-exchange between U.S. and Canadian law enforcement authorities will be essential in combating this mutual threat.

Cole, J. C., Bailey, M., Sumnall, H. R., Wagstaff, G. F., & King, L. A. (2002). The content of ecstasy tablets: Implications for the study of their long-term effects. Addiction, 97(12), 1531–1536. The aim is to examine the variation in the content of ecstasy tablets seized in the northwest of England during 2001 and to compare it to the UK average from 1991 to 2001. All tablets submitted to the Forensic Science Service in the northwest of England during 2001 were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection (HPLC-DAD). The mean MDMA content of these tablets are reported and compared to results from all Forensic Science Service laboratories in the United Kingdom from 1991 to 2001. Multiple samples (n = 80) from a single large seizure of White Dove tablets were analyzed to determine the variation due to manufacturing. Findings: All tablets submitted from the northwest of England to the Forensic Science Service in 2001 were found to contain 3, 4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) and some also contained 3, 4-methylenedioxyethamphetamine (MDEA). The MDMA content of these tablets ranged from 20 to 109 mg, and the mean was in the 60-69 mg range. Mitsubishi tablets were the most common type and they were found across the whole range. The low variation of MDMA content in the White Dove tablets suggests that these tablets were well manufactured. The data from the northwest of England in 2001 are in agreement with tablet analyses over the past 10 years, which show that the average MDMA content is falling. The amount of MDMA in ecstasy tablets is axiomatic to the discussion of their long-term effects. In order for the observed differences in ecstasy users to be the result of MDMA-induced neurotoxicity, it is necessary for them to have ingested one or more neurotoxic doses. These data indicate that the amount of MDMA in ecstasy tablets is dropping and that dose-effect relationships need to take this into account.

Godshaw, Gerald. Anti-Drug Law Enforcement Efforts and Their Impact [Microform]. Washington DC: The Service: Supt. of Docs., U.S. G.P.O., 1987. iii-136. This microfiche basically describes the anti-drug plan in the United States. It goes over how law enforcement is making an effort to try and stop the drug usage problem or reduce it. It also talks about the impact that law enforcement has made so far with the anti-drug enforcement.

James E. Gierach, An Economic Attack On Illicit Drugs, 79 May ABA J. 95, (1993). Mr. Gierach persuasively argues that America has lost the war on drugs under the current strategy and a new policy must be devised and focused on economic principals and medical realities. This new approach must be a compromise position between the extremes of tough law enforcement and legalization, and should be directed toward eliminating the social harm created by drugs. Since profits drive the drug...
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