Dictogloss represents a major shift from traditional dictation. When implemented conscientiously, dictogloss embodies sound principles of language teaching which include: learner autonomy, cooperation among learners, curricular integration, focus on meaning, diversity, thinking skills, alternative assessment, and teachers as colearners. These principles flow from an overall paradigm shift that has occurred in second language education (Jacobs & Farrell, 2001). While there are many variations on dictogloss , some of which are ; 1. The class engages in some discussion on the topic of the upcoming text. This topic is one on which students have some background knowledge and, hopefully, interest. The class may also discuss the text type of the text, e.g., narrative, procedure, or explanation, and the purpose, organizational structure, and language features of that text type. 2. The teacher reads the text aloud once at normal speed as students listen but do not write. The text can be selected by teachers from newspapers, textbooks, etc., or teachers can write their own or modify an existing text. The text should be at or below students’ current overall proficiency level, although there may be some new vocabulary. It may even be a text that students have seen before. The length of the text depends on students’ proficiency level. 3. The teacher reads the text again at normal speed and students take notes. Students are not trying to write down every word spoken; they could not even if they tried, because the teacher is reading at normal speed. 4. Students work in groups of two-four to reconstruct the text in full sentences, not in point form (also known as bu llet points). This reconstruction seeks to retain the meaning and form of the original text but is not a word-for-word copy of the text read by the teacher. Instead, students are working together to create a cohesive text with correct grammar and other features of the relevant text type, e.g., procedure, or rhetorical framework, e.g., cause and effect, that approximates the meaning of the original. 5. Students, with the teacher’s help, identify similarities and differences in terms of meaning and form between their text reconstructions and the original, which is displayed on an overhead projector or shown to students in another way
We can use dictogloss in Cooperative learning . And this is eight of these cooperative learning principles and how we can use dictogloss in the learning process ; 1. Heterogeneous Grouping. Forming groups in which students are mixed on one or more of a number of variables including sex, ethnicity, social class, religion, personality, age, language proficiency, and diligence is believed to have a number of benefits, such as encouraging peer tutoring, providing a variety of perspectives, helping students come to know and like others different from themselves, and fostering appreciation of the value of diversity. Thus, in forming groups for dictogloss, we might want to look at our class and make conscious decisions about which students should work together, rather than leaving the matter to chance or to students’ choice. The latter option often results in groups with low levels of heterogeneity. Furthermore, when we opt for heterogeneous groups, we may want to spend some time on ice breaking (also known as teambuilding) activities, because, as Slavin (1995) notes, the combination of students that results from teacher-selected groups is likely to be one that would never have been created had it not been for our intervention.
2. Collaborative Skills. Collaborative skills are those needed to work with others. Students may lack these skills, the language involved in using the skills, or the inclination to apply the skills during dictogloss. Some of the collaborative skills relevant to dictogloss include: asking for and giving reasons; disagreeing politely and responding politely to disagreement; and encouraging others to participate and...
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