Minerals and Mineral Resources
The diamond is a rare mineral that is used for many different things in today’s world. Diamonds are composed of carbon know as the chemical symbol C. In a diamond the carbon atoms are covalently bonded to one another. The physical properties of the diamond consist of colors of yellow, brown, gray, white, blue, black, reddish, greenish and colorless. The luster is adamantine to waxy. The specific gravity is 3.5, which is about the average for a mineral. The cleavage is perfect in 4 directions forming an octahedral. The streak of a diamond is white, but when the diamond is harder than a streak plate the streak is called "colorless". According to Mohs scale of hardness, the diamond is a rated a 10 meaning it is the hardest mineral.
In the world today diamonds are used two different things, jewelry and industrial use. The diamonds that are seen and use the purpose of jewelry are diamonds with color and clarity that will make them appropriate for jewelry. The diamonds that are used for industrial work are mostly used in cutting, grinding, drilling and polishing practices. The hardness and heat conductivity characteristics are the things being determined when being purchased. Industrial diamonds are usually crushed to produce micron-sized abrasive powders. These small particles of diamond are inserted in a saw blade, a drill bit or a grinding wheel.
Diamonds form at high temperatures and pressures. This occurs in Earth's mantle about 100 miles down. Most of the diamonds that are discovered have been pushed up to Earth's surface by deep-source volcanic eruptions. On their way up they pull out pieces of mantle rock and bring them to Earth's surface without melting. The diamonds are produced when people do mining to the rock that contains the xenoliths. They also produce them by mining the soils and sediments that formed as the diamond-bearing rock weathered away. The countries Australia and Congo account for nearly 60%...