The Dialects of American English
Before I learn sociolinguistics class, I think it is quite difficult to tell what the difference between language and dialect is. But, after I had learned I found out that language is something that mankind use to communicate to each other. Language is a big word. It concludes dialect, vernacular, and so on. Nevertheless, dialect is the language that use only in idiolect, only use in their group. For me, I think that there are many dialects in each country. For example, there are many dialects in Thailand such as dialects of the north, northeast, south and so on. Dialect can divided in to two main points. Firstly, the sociolinguistics used geography to separate each dialect. Secondly, the social class can be factor to divide the dialect.
R.A. Hudson pointed that out it is hard to distinct between ‘language’ and ‘dialect’. The hierarchical model of the family tree indicates that the boundaries between varieties are clear all levels of the tree. We consider the most straightforward variety differences based on geography which is called regional dialects. The dialect geographer had draw a line between the area where one item was found and areas where others were found, showing a boundary for each area called an isogloss. The family tree model can be a very important prediction to be made regarding isoglosses. This prediction follows from the strict hierarchy among varieties in the model. The social class, sexes, and age can impact to dialect too. Dialectologists speak of social dialects or sociolects to refer to non-regional differences. Because of these other factors, a speaker may show more similarity in language to people from the same social group in a different area than to people from a different social group in the same area.
Dialectology is the study of dialect and dialects (Frederick J.Newmeyer, 1995: 119-135). Not surprisingly, the major issues in the field of dialectology during the century of its existence have been deciding which varieties of language count as dialect. The history of the discipline can be characterized as the shift from collecting facts about geographically distributed rural varieties of language to analyzing the distribution of features of urban varieties as these features correlate with social and linguistic factor. He said dialect geography is called regional dialectology, area linguistic, linguistic geography, and traditional geography. It has been concerned with the collections of maps data. The data show the geographical distribution of some linguistic variants at the level of phonetics, phonology, morphology, lexicon, or semantics. The data are grouped by fieldworkers who seek out informants in predestinated communities located. The fieldworker elicits from hundreds of people by using questionnaire or worksheet.
Therefore, to conclude language is the way to communicate by using voice with the rule that everyone must understand. Every language in the world cannot be unity. Even two people that talk in the same language live in a same family, but they use their language in difference with each other. There are four factors of dialect that is syntax, lexicon, phonology, and syntax. If we would like to know more about dialect, we should know how sociolinguistics studies. First, local and regional dialect is the study of dialect that divided by the geography. Second, social dialects is the study of dialect that separated by the social and economy class. Third are functional varieties such as jargon.
People who study dialect should know the vocabulary about map that use for study dialect such as isogloss, bundle of isoglosses, dialect boundary, and dialect area. Isogloss is a line that draws to separate the area that uses difference dialect. The line will tell us about the boundaries of dialect or that said isogloss shows dialect boundary, and dialect boundary have shown dialect area. Isogloss has divided the difference in...
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