Diagrid

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  • Topic: Structural engineering, Force, Building
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  • Published : March 28, 2013
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DIAGRID : THE LANGUAGE OF MODERN DAY BUILDER

                                                        ABSTRACT

Design and construction of artificial infrastructure on the lines of  biomimicking principles requires the development of highly advanced structural systems which has the qualities of aesthetic expression, structural efficiency and most importantly geometric versatility. Diagrids, the latest mutation of tubular structures, have an optimum combination of the above qualities. In this paper, the peculiarities of the Diagrid, its structural behavior under loading and the design and construction of diagrid nodes are described. A case study of some recent diagrid tall buildings, namely the Swiss Re Building in London, the Hearst Tower in New York, and the West Guangzhou Tower in china is also presented.

                               CONTENTS

1.     INTRODUCTION
2.     THE TRIANGULAR DIAGRID MODULE
2.1         INTRODUCTION
2.2          MODULE GEOMETRY                                           
3.          STRUCTURAL   ACTION OF A DIAGRID MODULE 3.1       EFFECT OF GRAVITY LOADING
3.2       EFFECT OF LATERAL LOADING
3.3       EFFECT OF SHEAR LOADING
3.4       EFFECT OF NON-APEX LOADING
3.5 EFFECT OF HORIZONTAL AND VERTICAL CURVATURE UNDER VERTICAL LOADING 3.6      EFFECT OF HORIZONTAL CURVATURE UNDER HORIZONTAL LOADING

4.           DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF DIAGRID NODES

4.1                MATERIALS  USED FOR DIAGRIDS 4.2                 DIAGRID NODE DESIGN
4.3                NODE CONSTRUCTION FOR DIAGRID STRUCTURES 4.4                ERECTION OF DIAGRID NODES

          5.   CASE STUDIES
5.1           SWISS RE BUILDING
5.2          HEARST TOWER   
5.3          GUANGZHOU WEST TOWER

6.                 MERITS AND DEMERITS OF DIAGRIDS 6.1    MERITS OF DIAGRIDS
6.2                DEMERITS OF DIAGRIDS                7.     CONCLUSION

CHAPTER-1

INTRODUCTION
                      
               The Diagrids are perimeter structural configurations characterized by a narrow grid of diagonal members which are involved both in gravity and in lateral load resistance. Diagonalized applications of structural steel members for providing efficient solutions both in terms of strength and stiffness are not  new ,however nowadays a renewed interest in and a widespread application of diagrid is registered with reference to large span and high rise buildings, particularly when they are characterized by complex geometries and curved shapes, sometimes by completely free forms. Compared to conventional orthogonal structures for tall buildings such as framed tubes, diagrid structures carry lateral wind loads much more efficiently by their diagonal members’ axial action.;                Among the large-span buildings some examples are represented by the Seatlle Library, the London City Hall, the One Shelley Street in Sydney, and more recently by several outstanding Pavilions realized at the Shanghai 2010 Expo, (e.g. France, UAE) as well as by some dazzling projects like the Astana National library. Among tall buildings, noteworthy examples are the Swiss Re building in London, the Hearst tower in New York, the CCTV headquarters building in Beijing, the Mode Gakuen Spiral Tower in Aichi, the Cyclone Tower in Asan, the West tower in Guangzhou, the Lotte super tower in Seoul, the Capital Gate in Abu Dhabi, the Bow project in Calgary, the Building of Qatar Ministry of Foreign Affairs in Doha. .            The diagrid systems are the evolution of braced tube structures, since the perimeter configuration still holds for preserving the maximum bending resistance and rigidity, while, with respect to the braced tube, the mega-diagonal members are diffusely spread over the façade, giving rise to closely spaced diagonal elements and allowing for the complete elimination of the conventional vertical columns. Therefore the diagonal members in diagrid structures act both as inclined columns and as bracing elements,...
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