Teaching/learning methods used:
* Individual Instruction * Visual aids
* Return demonstration * Reinforce teaching * Group discussion * Questions and Answers
Topic(s) on Diabetes: (Do not select more than two topics).
1. What is Diabetes? (include Type I and Type II)
2. Oral Anti -Diabetic Medications
3. Insulin administration and Storage
4. Diet instructions for the diabetic (includes general guidelines for protein, fat, carbohydrates, fiber, and alcohol)
5. Hypoglycemia and Hyperglycemia signs and symptoms- (includes sources used to treat hypoglycemia and long term complications of diabetes due to hyperglycemia). 6. Foot care instructions
7. Exercise and Diabetes
8. How to use the glucoscan machine
9. Instructions for laboratory testing
10. Health promotion and maintenance for Diabetics
Write (2) questions that you anticipate your patient to ask and answer those questions.
Evaluation of your teaching objectives (see attached evaluation form).
Teaching/learning method: Individual Instruction
Topic: Diet instructions for the diabetic (general guidelines for protein, fat, carbohydrates, fiber, and alcohol consumption).
I. Principles of Nutrition in Diabetes
a. Diabetes can be a very dangerous disease, diet must be taken seriously! i. Causes more deaths per year than breast cancer and AIDS combined ii. Two out of three people with diabetes die from heart disease or stroke b. Diet is an essential component of diabetic treatment, regardless of oral medication/insulin therapy c. Must be realistic and flexible
iii. Consider cultural background, financial status, lifestyle d. Blood glucose target goals
iv. Premeal: 70-130 mg/dL per ADA recommendation
v. Postmeal: <180 mg/dL per ADA recommendation
vi. Affected by quantity of food, timing of meals, what is eaten II. Carbohydrate Intake
e. Fruit, vegetables, whole grains, legumes, low-fat milk vii. Emphasize total amount of carbohydrate consumed each day rather than carbohydrate source viii. Amount/ types of carbohydrates consumed have the greatest impact on postmeal glucose levels f. Carbohydrates broken down into the cell’s preferred form of energy: glucose g. Insulin is needed to help cells take in glucose. With diabetes, insulin cannot do this task properly h. Balancing carbohydrate intake is an important part of diabetes treatment ix. Consuming too much raises blood glucose way above normal x. Consuming too few can hurt the body by denying it the high-quality energy that it needs i. 45%-65% of calories should come from carbohydrates (ADA, 2008) xi. Minimum daily intake of 130g/day (ADA, 2008)
III. Protein Intake
j. Milk, meats, cheeses, eggs, nuts, tofu
k. Builds/ repairs muscles, skin, and cells in body
l. During digestion, protein breaks down into amino acids xii. Can be converted to glucose if necessary for energy (but body prefers energy from carbohydrates) m. 15%-20% of total daily calories (ADA, 2008)
IV. Fat and Cholesterol Intake
n. Oils, margarine, butter, lard, etc.
o. Supplies energy demands, carries fat-soluble vitamins (A, D, E, K), helps to maintain healthy skin/hair p. Moderation!
xiii. Too much trans fat in diet can increase risk for cardiovascular (heart and blood vessel) disease. Should preferably come from monounsaturated fats like olive oil and canola oil xiv. ADA recommendations:
1. <7% total calories from saturated fatty acids 2. Minimize trans fat intake (found in hard margarine, foods fried in hydrogenated and partly hydrogenated oils) 3. <200 mg/day dietary cholesterol...