Maryam M Yadegari
University of Calgary-Qatar
Ms Jackie Dumont
7 April 2012
There are two types of diabetes, diabetes mellitus and diabetes incipidus. The term ketoacidosis can happen in both but more often in type one. Diabetic ketoacidosis is a state or condition in which happens to patients with type one diabetes, those who are dependent to insulin therapy. It can occur in type two diabetes, but the situation may differ from the other. Defining characteristics include increase level of sugar in the blood and high concentration of ketones in body fluids. The signs and symptoms are vomiting excessive loss of body fluid, decrease in the level of consciousness and sometimes rapid breathing pattern. One of the provoking factors is noncompliance to insulin therapy in diagnosed patients. Diabetic ketoacidosis happens when someone with diabetes having lack of fluid in the body. As the body produces a stress reaction, hormones begin to breakdown muscle fat and liver cells into glucose(sugar)and fatty acids for use as energy. These hormones include glucagon, growth hormone and adrenaline. These fatty acids are transforms to ketones by a process called oxidation. The body use its own muscle, fat, and liver cells for energy. In diabetic ketoacidosis the body shifts from its normal fed metabolism (using carbohydrates for energy) to a fasting status (using fat for energy). The consequential expand in blood sugar occurs, because insulin is out of stock to transport sugar into cells for future use. As blood sugar increases, the kidneys cannot keep the extra amount of sugar which is excreted into the urine, thus increasing urination and causing dehydration. Usually about 10% of total body fluids are lost as the patient slips into diabetic ketoacidosis and fluid therapy is mainly considered. Diabetic ketoacidosis is a dangerous and potentially fatal side effect of diabetes therefore it can be...
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