January 13, 2011
Diabetes Case Study
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a chronic disease that affects millions of people across the nation. According to LeMone and Burke (2008), “Approximately 1.3 million new cases of DM are diagnosed each year in the United States” (pg 563). The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimate that 23.6 million people in the United States have DM. Collectively 17.9 million people were diagnosed and 5.7 million people were undiagnosed with DM in the year 2007. Of all the documented cases 90-95 percent have type II DM and the remaining 5-10 percent have type I DM (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2008). In the United States DM is the sixth most leading cause of death by a disease. Deaths are commonly caused by the cardiovascular effects associated with DM that result in coronary artery disease, atherosclerosis, and stroke. People diagnosed with DM are two to four times more likely to have heart disease or have a stroke than people who are not diabetic. DM is the leading cause of end-stage renal disease in the United States. DM is also the most common cause of nontraumatic amputations and newly diagnosed blindness (LeMone & Burke, 2008). Signs and Symptoms
Before someone is diagnosed with DM he or she usually experiences common signs and symptoms of the disease that leads him or her to see a physician. In type I DM the signs and symptoms that commonly present are the result of hyperglycemia. According to LeMone and Burke (2008), “Hyperglycemia causes serum hyperosmolarity, drawing water from the intracellular spaces into the general circulation. The increased blood volume increases renal blood flow and the hyperglycemia acts as an osmotic diuretic” (pg. 566). The resulting osmotic dieresis causes polyuria. The increase in urinary output results in increased thirst which results in polydipsia. The person with type I DM also has a decrease in energy because glucose cannot enter the cells...