Diabetes-Potential Effects as a Chronic Process
Diabetes is a serious problem in the United States. It is a disease where blood glucose levels are above normal. There are two types of diabetes, Type 1 diabetes (juvenile onset diabetes) and Type 2 diabetes (adult onset diabetes). Both types of diabetes exhibit similar symptoms or no symptoms at all. In this paper, we report the incidence of diabetes, typical signs and effect diabetes has on the body, teaching requirements and psycho-social challenges that go along with the disease. Diabetes mellitus affects about 17 million people, 5.9 million are undiagnosed. In the United States, approximately 800,000 new cases of diabetes are diagnosed yearly (Bare, 2006). Among working adults diabetes is the leading cause of non-traumatic amputations, blindness and end-stage renal disease. Diabetes is the third leading cause of death by disease, primarily because of the high rate of cardiovascular disease (Bare, 2006). Hospitalization rates for people with diabetes are 2.4 times greater for adults and 5.3 times greater for children than for the general population. Among adults in the United States, diagnosed cases of diabetes increased 49% from 1990 to 2000, and similar increases are expected to continue (Bare, 2006). According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, approximately 5% to 10% of people with diabetes have type 1, which the insulin-producing pancreatic beta cells are destroyed by an autoimmune process. As a result, they produce little or no insulin and require insulin injections to control their blood glucose levels. Approximately 90% to 95% of diabetics have type 2, which results from decreased sensitivity to insulin and impaired beta cell functioning resulting in decreased insulin production (Bare, 2006). Clinical manifestations of all types of diabetes are polyuria (increased urination), polydipsia (increased thirst) and polyphagia (increased appetite). Other symptoms include fatigue and weakness, vision changes, skin lesions or wounds that are slow to heal and recurrent infections. The onset of type 1 diabetes may also be associated with sudden weight loss or nausea and vomiting while, type 2 diabetes is linked to obesity and a sedentary lifestyle (Bare, 2006). Many untoward effects of the human body are direct results of diabetes. Every body
system is ultimately affected in time and especially if proper maintenance and care of the body is
neglected. Complications usually develop after several years, as a result of metabolism, diabetes
leads to life-threatening consequences, heart and vascular disease, and stroke. According to
Dagogo-Jack (2003) “Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in people with
diabetes.” Wound healing is slower in diabetics due to vascular issues. Neglect of wounds can
cause development of gangrene and the result would be amputation of the extremity. Also
related to vascular issues are retinal damage to the eyes leading to blindness. Baseline
examinations by an ophthalmologist are necessary to monitor and treat changes. Kidney damage,
another result of vascular insufficiencies, may produce kidney failure, creating the need for
dialysis, kidney transplant, or death.
“Life threatening complications of diabetes include diabetic coma or insulin shock” (Neighbors and Tannenhill-Jones 2006). Diabetic coma occurs as a result of inadequate amounts of insulin administered or increased carbohydrates. Patients need to observe symptoms of hyperglycemia, this onset is slow. Insulin shock is a rapid development and results from an increased amount insulin, inadequate diet, or increased exercise. Hypoglycemic symptoms will appear; the patient will display increased confusion, and slip into a coma. Utilization of treatment can minimize these complications. Teaching a recently diagnosed diabetic patient, like Mr. D, how to...