Diabetes Nature vs Nuture

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DIABETES

Genetic vs. Environmental

Gina Hume

Ivy Tech Community College – Northwest Indiana

July 20, 2011

DIABETES

Genetic vs. Environmental

Thesis: Is diabetes really a genetic disorder or could its causes lie in environmental factors?

I.Statistics from American Diabetes Association

A.2006 number of cases

B.Current number of cases in 2011

C.Number of deaths annually

II.Define diabetes

A.Define type I diabetes

B.Define type II diabetes

C.First recorded case, 2nd century A.D.

III.Genetic Links

A.Research of Dr. Marian Rewers, M.D., PhD

B.Journal of Lipid Research

C.Children receive diabetic gene from both parents

IV.Environmental Links

A.Cambridge scientist link pesticides

B.Article in Diabetes Care air pollution

C.Diabetes prevalence in Southern states

D. Mice diagnosed with diabetes after being fed high saturated fat diet

DIABETES
Genetic vs. Environmental
For the past twenty years, the number of diabetes cases has nearly doubled across the globe. In North America alone the cases have been increasing substantially each year. The Centers for Disease Control has term this rapid increase an epidemic in North America. With these alarming rates of increase the question should now be raised, is diabetes really a genetic disorder or could its causes lie in some sort of environmental factors, unhealthy diets, inactive lifestyles, air pollution, pesticides , or a combination of these?

Statistics
According to the figures published by the American Diabetes Association, 15.7 million people in the United States had diabetes in 2006. Just five years later, in 2011, American Diabetes Association announced that there were nearly 25.8 million reported cases of diabetes in the United States. That is an increase of over ten million new reported cases of diabetes in America. This disease is the sixth leading cause of death in the United States and the primary cause of blindness in people between the ages of twenty and seventy, accounting for approximately 70,000 deaths each year. The death rate for African-Americans with diabetes is 27 percent higher than the death rate for Caucasians who have the disease. Each year, over 13,000 new cases of type 1 diabetes are diagnosed in children and teenagers, making it one of the most common chronic diseases in American children. For the average American, the chance of developing type 1 diabetes by age 70 is 1 in 100 (1 percent), while the risk of developing type 2 diabetes is 1 in 9 (11 percent). (Association Diabetes Association, 2006, 2011) Diabetes Defined

According to the American Heritage Medical Dictionary, diabetes is defined as any of several metabolic disorders marked by excessive discharge of urine and persistent thirst, especially one of the two types of diabetes mellitus. Diabetes mellitus is defined as a severe, chronic form of diabetes caused by insufficient production of insulin and resulting in abnormal metabolism of carbohydrates, fats, and proteins. The disease, which typically appears in childhood or adolescence, is characterized by increased sugar levels in the blood and urine, excessive thirst, frequent urination, acidosis, and wasting. History of Diabetes

Back in the second century A.D., the Greek physician Aretaeus, gave diabetes its name from a Greek word meaning "siphon" or "pass through". Aretaeus observed that his patients' bodies appeared to "melt down” in to urine. By the eighteenth century, physicians added the Latin term "mellitus" to the name "diabetes" to describe its sugary taste. People had observed early on that an individual with diabetes had sugar in their urine. In fact, one of the ways they diagnosed diabetes was to pour a patient's urine near an ant hill. If the ants were attracted to the urine it had meant that the urine contained sugar. Back then, if a young...
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