Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome, and Obesity: Targets and Therapy

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The economic impact of obesity in the United States
This article was published in the following Dove Press journal: Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity: Targets and Therapy 17 August 2010 Number of times this article has been viewed

Ross A Hammond Ruth Levine
economic Studies Program, Brookings institution, washington DC, USA

Abstract: Over the past several decades, obesity has grown into a major global epidemic. In the United States (US), more than two-thirds of adults are now overweight and one-third is obese. In this article, we provide an overview of the state of research on the likely economic impact of the US obesity epidemic at the national level. Research to date has identified at least four major categories of economic impact linked with the obesity epidemic: direct medical costs, productivity costs, transportation costs, and human capital costs. We review current evidence on each set of costs in turn, and identify important gaps for future research and potential trends in future economic impacts of obesity. Although more comprehensive analysis of costs is needed, substantial economic impacts of obesity are identified in all four categories by existing research. The magnitude of potential economic impact underscores the importance of the obesity epidemic as a focus for policy and a topic for future research. Keywords: obesity, economic impact, United States, economic cost

Introduction
Over the past several decades, obesity has grown into a major global epidemic. By 2002, nearly 500 million people were overweight worldwide. In the United States (US), rates of obesity have doubled since 1970 to over 30%, with more than two-thirds of Americans now overweight.1 The determinants of this epidemic are likely complex,2,3 with substantial heterogeneity at the individual level in both causes and consequences that is beyond the scope of the current review. In this article, we provide an overview of the state of research on the likely economic impact of the US obesity epidemic at the aggregate level. We conducted a broad search of the literature that addresses potential economic costs of obesity. The most recent studies that sample US populations have identified at least four major categories of economic impact linked with the obesity epidemic: direct medical costs, productivity costs, transportation costs, and human capital costs. We systematically review current evidence on each set of costs in turn, and discuss important gaps for future research along with potential trends in future economic impacts of obesity. This review adds to the current research on the economic impact of obesity by providing a more comprehensive overview of the range of effects, as well as a summary of the most up-to-date estimates. Correspondence: Ross A Hammond Brookings institution, 1775 Massachusetts Ave Nw, washington DC 20036, USA Tel +1 202 797 6000 email rhammond@brookings.edu

Direct medical costs
One of the most cited economic impacts of the obesity epidemic is on direct medical spending. Obesity is linked with higher risk for several serious health conditions, Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity: Targets and Therapy 2010:3 285–295 285 © 2010 Hammond and Levine, publisher and licensee Dove Medical Press Ltd. This is an Open Access article which permits unrestricted noncommercial use, provided the original work is properly cited.

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DOI: 10.2147/DMSOTT.S7384

Hammond and Levine

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such as hypertension, type 2 diabetes, hypercholesterolemia, coronary heart disease (CHD), stroke, asthma, and arthritis. Direct medical spending on diagnosis and treatment of these conditions, therefore, is likely to increase with rising obesity levels. Several studies offer retrospective or prospective...
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