Indigenous Elders Who Have a Diabetes Management Problem
Diabetes is a significant problem greatly affecting Aboriginal (NAHSWG, 2009). Appropriate management can delay the process of the disease and prevent severe complications (Shereff, 2010). The target populations in this essay are Rural Indigenous elders, who posses’ most vulnerable circumstances regard to diabetes management (PriceWaterhouseCoopers, 2001). This essay will describe how social determinants negatively impact their diabetes management capabilities. In addition, it defines the concept of health literacy and its components, and how health literacy has been influence by those social determinants. This is followed by an exploration of why it is important to promote health literacy to both individual and group. The essay will then demonstrate how community nurses use evidence based and an empowerment approach to promote health literacy that based on the principles of primary health care and health promotion. It includes increase their ability and willingness to access health services by implementing effective and cultural appropriate education programs, training for local staff members, advocate for funding and policies change, and collaborate with other interagency alliances (Barrett, Austin & McCarthy, 2000). The ultimate result is improved diabetes management and health status in a community context.
How social determinants negatively impact their diabetes management.
Management of type 2 diabetes is a greater challenge for rural Indigenous elders because of varies social determinants include geographic, genetic, age, socioeconomic, education, culture and political factors (Dwyer, 2004).).
The Australian health system has acknowledged that people living in remote and rural areas are at a disadvantage. They have less access to health services and primary health care providers due to there are lack of knowledge regarding healthcare and lack of cultural appropriate health services (Simpson, Shaw & Zimmet, 2003). Consequently, it makes it harder for Indigenous elders to go for checkups, access health services and get educated on diabetes management issues (Baker, Wolf, Feinglass, Thompson, Gazmararian & Huang, 2007). Apart from isolation and poor access to social services including jobs, they also face financial difficulties, which greatly affect access to health services (Dwyer, 2004). Poverty has led to additional issues such as lower education levels which subsequently affect the capacity that individuals have to apply health information in an effective manner (Frost, Reich & Fujisaki, 2000). In addition, poverty limits the choices they have for diabetes medication and healthy foods (Lawrence, & Worsley, 2007). An additional vulnerability is that Indigenous Australians have a genetic disposition such that they are 3 times likely to get diabetes than their Western counterparts (Bennett, Chen, Soroui & White, 2009). The authors further argue that lifestyle and genetic issues contribute to a higher prevalence of type 2 diabetes amongst indigenous Australians. Evidence from literature shows that, the metabolic processes in Aboriginal Australians make them better adapted to the traditional lifestyle of hunting and gathering (Campbell & Cornish, 2010). The changes they have had to adapt including different food types and living conditions which overwhelm their systems making them susceptible to poorer control of obesity, hypertension, diabetes and other chronic conditions (Jones & Creedy, 2012). Furthermore, older individuals living in indigenous communities are at a higher risk of getting type 2 diabetes (Levene & Donnelly, 2008). This is because elders have a harder time adjusting their lifestyles to cope with diverse condition because of fading motor functions and...