According to Johnson and Raterink (2009), Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is a major global chronic health issue. Though, it is found that the condition is largely preventable as many of the risk factors for developing the disease such as excess weight, poor diet, inactivity, smoking and excessive alcohol consumption, are modifiable behaviours (Australian Bureau of Statistics, 2011). A client newly diagnosed with Type 2 DM may be unaware that the illness can be effectively self-managed with changes to diet, lifestyle and if necessary the inclusion of oral hypoglycemic agents (Australian Institute of Health and Welfare [AIHW], 2008). Therefore, the aim of the education plan is to assist the client to make educated lifestyle choices and changes that will improve health outcomes and reduce the risk of diabetic complications. The education plan will develop evidence-based client education strategies that focus on diabetes management and the modification of unhealthy lifestyle behaviours. According to Funnell, Anderson, Austin, and Gillespie (2007), developing appropriate indvidualised educational strategies that increase client knowledge enables the client to make self-directed behavioural changes that aid in effective self-management and improved health outcomes. Background
Diabetes care and self-management education needs to be tailored to the individual (Funnell et al., 2007). The client, in whom this education plan is tailored for, is a 50 year old male with a body mass index of 32 who has been newly diagnosed with Type 2 DM. In designing the education plan it is also important to assess and include extended resources of support for the client (Goldie, 2008). Resources of support may include client’s family and friends, utilisation of local community services and allied health care providers such as social workers, dieticians and podiatrists (Hunt & Grant, 2010). For the client to make informed choices they need to be educated on the disease process and possible complications. Diabetes is an illness that occurs when the body in unable to maintain normal levels of glucose in the blood (McKenny & Short, 2011). Type 2 DM is a progressive disease, characterised by hyperglycemia resulting from defects in the secretion of insulin (AIHW, 2012). Chronic hyperglycemia affects function of cells and tissues and may result in cardiovascular disease, kidney disease, vision loss and lower limb amputations due to neuropathy and peripheral arterial disease complications (AIHW, 2008). Treatment of Type 2 DM is complex with evidence emphasizing the need and importance of a collaborative healthcare team approach (Robertson, 2011). Initial treatment for those newly diagnosed involves nutritional therapy and exercise to aid in weight loss (Zisser, Gong, Kelley, Seidman, & Riddell, 2011). However, as Type 2 DM is a chronic progressive condition, pharmacotherapy is usually required (Tsang, 2012). Oral hypogylcaemic agents are typically the first pharmacological intervention to improve glycaemic control and these agents include Biguanides (Metformin), Sulphonylureas, Acarbose, Meglitinides, and Thiazolidinediones (Phillips & Twigg, 2010; Sanchez, 2011). Tsang (2012) argues that Metformin is recommended as the first line of treatment. In addition, due to the progressive nature of the condition most clients will require insulin therapy to achieve and maintain adequate glycaemic control (Nyenwe, Jerkins, Umpierrez, & Kitabchi, 2011). Newly diagnosed clients require substantial guidance and education regarding disease self-management (Johnson & Raterink, 2009). Self-management issues the client and family may have include adhering continually to a daily regime of monitoring blood sugar levels and the self regulation of diet, exercise and medication (Long & Gambling, 2011). Clients and their families also need to know how to manage the complications of diabetes including foot hygiene and the management of hypogylcaemic or...
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