Diabetes Case Study

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Diabetes is a chronic condition in which the levels of glucose in the blood are too high. Anna Foley is a newly diagnosed patient with diabetes mellitus type 1. It will be discussed how diabetes mellitus type 1 disrupts the normal control of blood glucose in the body, the presenting symptoms of someone who has been newly diagnosed with the condition, and the nursing care requirements and care plan will be outlined for Miss Foley. According to Australian Diabetes Council (2013), type one diabetes affects approximately 10-15% of all cases of diabetes and that it is the most common chronic childhood disease affecting most people before 30 years of age. Glucose is the main source of energy for the body and comes from carbohydrate foods we eat. Carbohydrate foods include bread, pasta, rice, cereals, fruits, and starchy vegetables. The body breaks carbohydrates down to glucose which then enters the blood stream. For glucose to enter the cells and be used for energy, a hormone called insulin must be available (Australian Diabetes Council 2013). Two main hormones that are produced within the pancreatic islets or islets of Langerhans are Insulin and Glucagon, these can be found within the pancreas. Insulin reduces the levels of blood glucose in the body. When high levels of glucose are present in the blood, this stimulates the release of insulin from the beta cells. Whereas glucagon acts as an antagonist of insulin and raises the level of blood glucose in the body, glucagon is released by the alpha cells stimulated by the low levels of glucose (Farrell, M and Dempsey, J 2011 p, 1222). Insulin is an anabolic, or storage hormone. When a person eats a meal insulin is secreted and moves the glucose from the bloodstream into the muscles, liver and fat cells. Without insulin, blood levels of glucose rise to dramatically high levels (Marieb, E 2000 p, 326). If the concentration of glucose in the blood exceeds normal limits, the kidneys will not be able to reabsorb the glucose....
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