Diabetes and Chronic Kidney Disease

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Diabetes and Chronic Kidney Disease
Stages 1–4

National Kidney Foundation's Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative (NKF-KDOQI™) did you know that the National Kidney Foundation's Kidney disease outcomes Quality initiative (KdoQi™) develops guidelines that help your doctor and health care team make important decisions about your medical treatment? the information in this booklet is based on the National Kidney Foundation's KdoQi™ recommended guidelines for diabetes, and it's very important for you to know. What is your stage of kidney disease? there are five stages of kidney disease. they are shown in the table below. your doctor determines your stage of kidney disease based on the presence of kidney damage and your glomerular filtration rate (GFR), which is a measure of your level of kidney function. your treatment is based on your stage of kidney disease. Speak to your doctor if you have any questions about your stage of kidney disease or your treatment.

Stages of Kidney Disease

Stage 1 2 3 4 5

Description Kidney damage (e.g., protein in the urine) with normal GFR Kidney damage with mild decrease in GFR Moderate decrease in GFR Severe reduction in GFR Kidney failure

Glomerular Filtration Rate (GFR)* 90 or above 60 to 89 30 to 59 15 to 29 Less than 15 Dialysis Patient (hemodialysis, peritoneal dialysis)

Transplant recipient

*your GFR number tells your doctor how much kidney function you have. as chronic kidney disease progresses, your GFR number decreases.



NatioNal KidNey FouNdatioN

Contents What is diabetes? ........................................................ 4 are there different types of diabetes? ............................... 4 How does diabetes affect my body? ............................... 5 What is chronic kidney disease?..................................... 6 are people with diabetes at greater risk for getting kidney disease? ........................................................ 6 What can people with diabetes do to prevent kidney disease? ........................................................ 7 How does diabetes harm the kidneys? ............................. 8 How do i know if i have kidney damage? ........................ 9 if i have kidney damage, what can be done? ................... 9 What can be done to keep my kidneys working as long as possible? ........................................................... 11 What about cholesterol and lipids? ............................... 13 What about pregnancy? ............................................. 13 Key points to remember about diabetes and the kidneys ............................................................ 14 diabetes: a growing epidemic ..................................... 15 Where can i get more information? ............................... 15 Sample meal plan for diabetes and kidney disease .......... 17

NatioNal KidNey FouNdatioN



What is diabetes? diabetes is a serious disease. it occurs when your body does not make enough insulin or cannot use the insulin it makes. insulin is a hormone. it controls the amount of sugar (called glucose) in your blood. a high blood sugar level can cause problems in many parts of your body. Are there different types of diabetes? yes. there are two main types: n

Type 1 diabetes

if you have this type of diabetes, your body does not make insulin. it usually starts when you are a child or young adult, but it can occur at any age. it is treated by taking daily insulin shots or using an insulin pump and by following a special meal plan. about 5 to 10 percent of cases of diabetes are type 1. n

Type 2 diabetes

if you have this type of diabetes, your body makes some insulin but cannot use it properly. type 2 is partially preventable and is typically brought on by poor diet and lack of exercise. Very often heredity plays a part. it usually starts when you are over age 40, but it can happen earlier. it is treated with exercise, weight loss, and special...
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