Diabetes

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TYPE 2 DIABETES 1

Type 2 diabetes

TYPE II DIABETES MALLITUS 2 Abstract
Diabetes mallitus is a disease in which there are high levels of blood sugar in affected individual. It is also called as Non-Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mallitus or Adult Onset Diabets. This disease results due to a defect in the functioning of insulin in the body. It can either be in a form of insulin deficiency, or insulin resistance. Type II diabetes mallitus is a familial disease in some cases where it runs in families. In such cases, it is most commonly a result of weight gain. Obesity is a major risk factor for type II diabetes mallitus in those persons in whom there is a strong family history of diabetes. Normally, the blood glucose levels higher than 200 mg/dl are considered to be alarming and require confirmatory tests for diagnosis.

Type 2 diabetes 3 CAUSES:
Type II diabetes mallitus can either be a result of:
1. Insulin deficiency or
2. Insulin resistance.
Insulin is basically required for metabolism of the blood glucose, When metabolised by insulin, the glucose is moved to its storage places in the cells and thus used as required. Insulin is produced by the islets of Langerhan’s in the pancreas. A defect in these cells results in a deficiency of insulin. Insulin resistance results due to a resistance offered by the target cells to the effects of insulin. In such cases, insulin is not deficient, instead the target tissues, like the fat, liver and muscle cells fail to respond to insulin; this also results in greater levels of blood glucose, leading to diabetes, as glucose is not stored in these cells. Type II diabetes mallitus usually develops in a slow manner. It is more common in people who are obese, or otherwise thin elderly people. Other risk factors include a decreased activity level and an increased weight. COMMON SYMPTOMS:

The signs and symtoms of type II diabetes usually develop very late. This disease goes on symptomless for a long time. These include: 1. Increased fatiguablitily,
2. Increased thirst,
3. Increased hunger,
4. An increaed frequency of urination,
5. Slow healing of wounds,
6. Infections involving different parts of body especially kidney and skin, 7. Decreased visual acuity,
8. Increased numbness in fingers or feet.
DIAGNOSTIC TESTS:
Blood glucose is diagnosed after performing the ‘fasting’ or ‘random’ blood glucose tests. The fasting blood glucose test requires the testing of blood glucose levels early in the morning after an overnight fast. If it comes more than 126 mg/dl at two different occassions, it is diagnosed as diabetes. Type 2 diabetes 4 Random blood glucose level is diagnosed after testing the blood glucose level without any fasting condition. If it comes about more than 200 mg/dl, it is diagnosed as diabetes. Another diagnostic test is called as the ‘glucose tolerance test’ in which the patient is first tested for the fasting blood glucose level; the patient is then offered a glucose solution to drink with a standard preparation and then again blood glucose level is tested after two hours, which is then labelled as higher than normal if it is above 200 mg/dl. PREVENTION OF TYPE II DIABETES MALLITUS:

There are some important measures which can prevent type II diabetes mallitus. These include: 1. Adoptation of a healthy life style,
2. Screening of the individuals having a family history of diabetes at age 30, 3. Taking anti diabetic drugs for prevention of diabetes. A healthy life style includes an increased physical activity and a healthy diet intake. According to the results of a study published in The New England Journal of Medicine, obesity was described as the single most important risk factor for development of...
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