Topics: Insulin, Diabetes mellitus, Diabetes Pages: 14 (5467 words) Published: January 5, 2013
Diabetes is not a single disease with a single cause. It is one of the chronic diseases that cannot be cured but can be controlled. It is happen due to a defect in the body’s ability to convert glucose to energy. When food is consumed, it is digested and converted into fats, protein or carbohydrates. Foods that affect blood sugars are called carbohydrates. When carbohydrates are digested they are converted into glucose. Individuals with diabetes should eat carbohydrates but must do so in moderation. Glucose is then transferred to the blood and is used by the cells for energy. A hormone (body regulator) called insulin which is produced by the beta cells of the pancreas is needed to lower blood sugar by transferring of glucose from the blood into the cells. Another function of insulin is to convert excess glucose into glucagon, which is stored in the liver and muscles as the energy reserve. Alpha cells in the pancreas produce glucagon hormone to stimulate the conversion of stored glycogen back to glucose. In individuals with diabetes, this process is impaired. Diabetes develops when the pancreas fails to produce sufficient quantities of insulin. When insulin is lacking or cannot be used properly, the body loses its ability to process glucose. As a result, glucose accumulates in the blood. This condition is called as hyperglycemia (high blood sugar). Some of the excess sugar is excreted through kidney into the urine, thus the presence of sugar in the urine will be a sign of high blood sugar. One of the symptoms of diabetes is frequent urination. When diabetes is untreated, as the blood sugar increases and more glucose is lost in urine, other symptoms such as extreme thirst, blurred vision, weakness and weight loss will occur. Somewhere in the world every 10 seconds two people develop diabetes, every 10 seconds one person dies of diabetes and every 30 seconds a limb is lost to diabetes. According to The Star article that published on January 11, 2010, the number of diabetics in Malaysia has increased by almost 80 percent in the last 10 years from 1996 to 2006 to 1.4 million adults above the age of 30. In 5 years later, 2011, the number has doubled to over 3 million Malaysians were diabetic. According to the Second National Health and Morbidity survey it is estimated that 3.4 million Malaysians are diabetes sufferers in 2010. Diabetes is the chronic disease that may cause other chronic disease such as heart disease and kidney failure. From my article reading, 4 out of 5 people with diabetes will die of heart disease which is diabetes is the number one killer disease in Malaysia. Besides that, six new cases of stroke occur every hour in Malaysia. These clearly show that this complication is very frequently happening on diabetic’s patient in Malaysia. These statistics show that diabetic in Malaysia become the serious problem as it increases from one year to another year and it is expected that the statistics will continue to increase if Malaysian do not take the responsibility to take care of themselves and their health.

Diabetes is not the new diseases. The earliest record of diabetes was mentioned on third Dynasty Egyptian papyrus by physician Hesy-Ra. He mentioned polyuria which is the frequent urination as the symptom of diabetes. In 1500 B.C. Aretaeus was the first physician who was identified diabetes and gave it is name. In the second century A.D. he described diabetes as “a wonderful affliction not very frequent among men, being a melting down of the flesh and limbs into urine.” The full name, diabetes mellitus was given to the disease later. It comes from the Greek and Latin words meaning “to pass through” and “honey,” describing the major symptom, sugar in the urine. In medieval Persia, Avicenna provided a detailed account on diabetes mellitus in his book, ''The Canon of Medicine'' in 980 to 1037. He described the abnormal appetite and the collapse of sexual functions and he...
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