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Safety/Science Foundations
1. Avoid the situation; don't touch
2. Close-toed shoes
3. Students
4. To protect your eyes from chemicals
5. Before starting the lab
6. Students should not play around and follow directions. Students should clean up after their selves after finishing a lab. 7. Hypothesis - a testable explanation for an observation
8. Observation - statement made using senses. ex. I hear chirping Inference - interpretation from observations. ex. "The chirping is from the bird" 9. Biology - study of life
10. Organization, reproduction, growth, use energy, respond to stimuli, maintain homeostasis, adapt and evolve 11. Homeostasis - balance/stability
12. Law - An independently and sufficiently verified description of a direct link between cause and effect of a phenomenon, deduced from experiments and/or observations 13. Theory - well-supported explanation based on facts that have been repeatedly confirmed 14. Prediction - educated guess

15. a) Mice that have not been microwaved
b) Microwave
c) Strength of mice
d) Microwaving did not cause the mouse to be stronger than the non-microwaved mice e) Bart's results are not reliable because there is not enough trials and mice Chemistry
16. Valence electrons are involved in chemical bonding
17. a) 15, 15, 15
b) 18, 18, 22
c) 20, 20, 20
d) 8, 8, 8
e) 6, 6, 6
f) 7, 7, 7
g) 1, 1, 0
h) 3, 3, 4
18. Protons, neutrons, electrons
19. All matter is composed of small, fast moving particles called atoms 20. Ionic - two or more valence electrons are given or lost between both atoms (usually metals lose and nonmetals gain) Covalent - two or more valence electrons are shared between both atoms 21. Base - a compound with more Hydroxide ions (OH-) to form a solution with a pH greater than 7/anion 22. Acid - a compound with more Hydronium ions (H3O+) to form a solution with a pH less than 7/cation 23. 0 - 6 = acids, 7 = neutral, 8 - 14 = bases

24. Help maintain homeostasis within an organism by keeping pH at a nearly constant value 25. Unequal sharing of atoms
26. a) Adhesion - "water gripping to something else"
b) Cohesion - "water gripping to water"
c) Capillary Action - adhesion + cohesion working together d) Solubility - amount of a substance (called the solute) that dissolves in a unit volume of a liquid substance (called the solvent) e) Evaporative cooling - reduction in temperature resulting from the evaporation of a liquid f) Polarity - the distribution of charge within a molecule 27. Soluble compounds

Biochemistry
28. Organic compound - any compound of carbon and another element in any living thing 29. Carbon has 4 valence electron for 4 bonds.
30. a) DNA - nucleic acid
b) RNA - nucleic acid
c) Insulin - protein
d) Wax - lipid
e) Hemoglobin - protein
f) Enzymes - protein
g) Steroids - lipid
h) Polypeptide - all
i) Sucrose - carbohydrate
j) Starch - carbohydrate
k) Cholesterol - nucleic acid
l) Earwax - lipid
m) Saturated fats - carbohydrate
31. Starch, cellulose, glycogen
32. Glucose, fructose, galactose
33. Polar head group with fatty acid tails
34. 20
35. Saturated - solid at room temperature, high melting point (butter) Unsaturated - liquid at room temperature, low melting point (olive/veggie oil) 36. 3 phosphate groups, nitrogenous base, sugar

37. Enzymes speed up chemical reactions, necessary for proper body function 38. Enzymes are biological catalysts that speed up chemical reactions. Each enzyme has a unique shape that determines its function. They do this by breaking down bonds and reforming new ones. 39. 1 Carbon : 2 Hydrogen : 1 Oxygen

40. Hydrolysis adds a water molecule to break the peptide bond. Condensation reaction removes a water molecule to form a peptide bond. 41. Proteins carry out chemical reactions (enzymes), pump molecules in and out of cells, defends (antibodies), are a part of structure (skin, nails), and...
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