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By | October 2012
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1. A theory based on observation and scientific study

about how people learn.

2. Knowledge is not a fixed object, it is constructed

by an individual through his/her own experience
of that object.

3. Example: When we encounter something new, we

have to reconcile it with our previous ideas and

4. Constructivist approach to learning emphasizes

challenging projects that include students, teachers
and experts in the learning community.

5. Jean Piaget and John Dewey developed theories of

childhood development and education, that led to the
evolution of constructivism.

6. Lev Vygotsky introduced the social aspect of learning

into constructivism.

'Can there be a human science?‘ was posed by Guba
and Lincoln while writing a research in 1989 and 1990

Suggested that constructivism is a workable paradigm for the study of human interaction.

Compare this paradigm with possible alternatives – post
positivism and critical theory

Come to the conclusion that constructivism offers the most useful way forward.

Research projects
Field trips
Class discussions

Accommodate students interest
Allows reconstruction and revision of previous


Time consuming
Difficult to evaluate

Constructivism is a dominant perspective in fields like

science education.

Its implies that the idea is so strong that it completely

dominates an entire field or discipline.

Example of constructivism theory:
Goal-based theory
Social development theory (Vygotsky)
Problem-based learning (PBL)
Situated learning

What is goal based
theory of this theory is to increase the performance
The concept
of the learner by setting a set of difficult and specific
The learner must have confident in their own ability to
accomplish the goal in order for the theory to work....

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