about how people learn.
2. Knowledge is not a fixed object, it is constructed
by an individual through his/her own experience
of that object.
3. Example: When we encounter something new, we
have to reconcile it with our previous ideas and
4. Constructivist approach to learning emphasizes
challenging projects that include students, teachers
and experts in the learning community.
5. Jean Piaget and John Dewey developed theories of
childhood development and education, that led to the
evolution of constructivism.
6. Lev Vygotsky introduced the social aspect of learning
'Can there be a human science?‘ was posed by Guba
and Lincoln while writing a research in 1989 and 1990
Suggested that constructivism is a workable paradigm for the study of human interaction.
Compare this paradigm with possible alternatives – post
positivism and critical theory
Come to the conclusion that constructivism offers the most useful way forward.
Accommodate students interest
Allows reconstruction and revision of previous
Difficult to evaluate
WHY IT IS CALL THAT?
Constructivism is a dominant perspective in fields like
Its implies that the idea is so strong that it completely
dominates an entire field or discipline.
Example of constructivism theory:
Social development theory (Vygotsky)
Problem-based learning (PBL)
What is goal based
theory of this theory is to increase the performance
of the learner by setting a set of difficult and specific
The learner must have confident in their own ability to
accomplish the goal in order for the theory to work....