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What combination of factors resulted in rapid US industrial growth in the late 1800’s?               In the late 1800’s the US overtook Great Britain as the world’s largest source of manufactured goods               Abundant natural resources

o             The US was its own source of the raw materials necessary for industrialization o             Coal, iron ore, copper, lead, timber, and oil               Abundant labor supply
o             High immigration between 1865 & 1900 o             Increased supply of laborers and high demand for industrial jobs made labor cheap               Capital (wealth or money) for investing in American businesses               Laborsaving technological advances o             440,000 new patents were submitted by the US government from 1860 to 1890               Pro-Business government policies o             Protection of private property

o             Federal subsidies, loans, and land grants for railroads o             Protective tariffs
o             Very little federal regulation of business * Very low taxes on corporate profits

How did railroads impact American industrialization in late 1800’s?               Railroads were the nation’s first “big business” * o             Resources needed to build the nationwide network of railroads led to growth in other industries (especially coal and steel) * o             Led to the development of the modern stock-holder corporation               Cornelius Vanderbilt

* o             Put millions from his steamboat business into the NY Central Railroad in 1867 * o             Merged and “consolidated” local railroads into a trunk line connecting NY to Chicago * o             Trunk lines major routes between large cities (Baltimore RR, Ohio RR, and Pennsylvania RR)               Promoted settlement on the Great Plains               Created one large national market by linking east and west  

How did the federal government aid railroad expansion?
              In order to promote western expansion the federal government provided railroad companies with huge subsidies in the form of loans and land grants o             80 companies received over 170 million acres of public land o             Railroad companies received more than three times the land given away by the homestead act               The Transcontinental Railroad

o             During the Civil War Congress authorized land grants and loans for a transcontinental railroad connecting California to the rest of the Union o             The Union Pacific company built from east to west across the Great Plains from Omaha, Nebraska               Construction directed by General Greenville Dodge               Used thousands of war veterans and Irish immigrants for labor o             Central Pacific company built from west to east over the mountains from Sacramento               Construction directed by Charles Crocker               Used 6,000 Chinese immigrants as labor o             The two companies met at Promontory Pont Utah on May 10, 1869 o             A golden spike was driven into the ground to mark the linking of the Atlantic and Pacific states

What type of technological innovations contributed to rapid industrialization in the late 1800’s?               Railroads: rapid transportation               Telegraph: invented by Samuel Morse in 1844 o             Cyrus W. Field’s transatlantic cable improved overseas communication in 1866 o             By 1900 telegraph lines linked all continents in a global network of cables               Telephone: invented by Alexander Graham Bell in 1876               Other inventions that improved business: typewriter (1867), cash register (1879), calculating machine (1887), adding machine (18880               Consumer use inventions: George Eastman’s Kodak Camera (1888), Lewis Waterman’s fountain pen (1884), King Gillette’s safety razor (1895)               Thomas Edison...
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